Expected Questions in Agriculture and Animals 2019 – IAS/NET (Part-2) - (Set 2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Amur falcon

  • It is small raptor of falcon family.
  • It breeds in south-eastern Siberia & Northern China before migrating in large flocks across India & over Arabian Sea to winter in Southern Africa.
  • Raptor (bird of prey) - size of a pigeon - makes its home in Nagaland, flying staggering 22,000 km from there to South Africa, then onto Mongolia & back to Nagaland. Bird has one of longest & most fascinating migratory paths in avian world.
  • Falcon breeds in south-eastern Siberia & north-eastern China, where Amur River divides Russian Far East & China.
  • It covers one of largest migratory distances from Mongolia & Russia to South Africa.
  • Due to indiscriminate killing, their numbers are rapidly coming down.
  • It is considered as delicacy in Nagaland & widely hunted & sold in local market.
  • Centre decided to develop Doyang Lake in Nagaland, famous as a roosting site for longest travelling raptors Amur Falcons, as an eco-tourism spot for bird-watchers.

Blackbuck

  • Blackbuck known as Indian antelope, is antelope found in India, Nepal & Pakistan. Blackbuck is sole extant member of genus Antilope.
  • In India, hunting of blackbuck is prohibited under Schedule I of Wildlife Protection Act of 1972.
  • Blackbuck is listed as least concern on IUCN Red List.
  • Black buck is believed to be second fastest animal after Cheetah.
  • Punjab’s State animal: Black buck
  • Blackbucks have religious significance in Hindu mythology & Bishnoi tribe of Rajasthan is famous for its conservation efforts for Black bucks.
  • Male blackbucks weigh 34–45 kg (75–100 pounds) & stand 74–88 cm (29–35 inches) at shoulder.
  • Females weighing 31–39 kg (68–86 pounds) & having shoulder heights only few cm. shorter than males.
  • Females have white markings as males, including circular eye patches, mouth, underside, inner legs & rump patch. Male blackbucks are still darker than females & immature males.
  • Blackbucks are grazers & frequent open short grassland, they can survive in semidesert where there is sufficient vegetation.
  • They often frequent nearly barren salt pans. They avoid woodland & shrubland.
  • They prefer green grass but browse when grass is sparse.
  • Blackbucks in semidesert of Rajasthan are observed to drink twice a day. They are active in daytime, tolerate hottest sun & seek shade for only 2 to 3 hours at midday.

Bramble Cay Melomys

  • In 2016, Australian Great Barrier Reef rodent aka Bramble Cay melomys became first mammal species driven to extinction by human-induced climate change.
  • Main reason for extinction Bramble Cay melomys is anthropogenic climate change.
  • Climate change caused in ocean inundation (due to sea rise) of low-lying cay areas of their habitat over last decade resulting in dramatic habitat loss.
  • Bramble Cay melomys was a small rat-like (rodent) animal species in family Muridae.
  • It was Great Barrier Reef’s only endemic (found nowhere else) mammal species.
  • It was mainly found in a small coral cay called Bramble Cay located off north coast of Queensland in Torres Strait b/w Australia & Papua New Guinea.
  • Their coral cay habitat was only 340m long & 150m wide & was 3m above sea level.

‘Flying bulldog’

  • Wallace’s giant bee- world’s largest bee- is rediscovered in a remote part of Indonesia.
  • Bee lives in Indonesian island region of North Moluccas.
  • Bee is spotted for the first time in almost 40 years
  • Wallace bee was discovered in 19th century by British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace. It was nicknamed as “flying bulldog”.
  • Bee (Megachile pluto), which lives in Indonesian island region of North Moluccas, makes its nest in termite mounds, using its large fang-like mandibles to collect sticky resin to protect its home from termites.
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species lists bee as “vulnerable”. Though population of bee is relatively high, remoteness of its population makes it hard to study.

Cinereous vulture

Cinereous vulture was sighted in Jharkhand. Birdwatchers call it a rare sighting, as earlier records of this migratory bird have revealed that it comes to northern parts of India up to Rajasthan. Bird watchers & researchers were baffled to find it in Hazaribagh in Jharkhand. IUCN Red List Status: Near Threatened

India is home to 9 species of vultures & w/population of these birds dwindling, country has launched a species-recovery plan thru conservation breeding centers in diff. parts of country.

9 Species of Large Vultures Found Living in India

  • Indian Vulture -Gyps Indicus.
  • Himalayan Vulture -Gyps Himalayensis.
  • Bearded Vulture -Gypaetus Barbatus.
  • lender-Billed Vulture -Gyps Tenuirostris.
  • White-Rumped Vulture -Gyps Bengalensis.
  • Cinereous Vulture -Aegypius Monachus.
  • Egyptian Vulture -Neophron Percnopterus.
  • Red-Headed Vulture -Sarcogyps Calvus.

Asian Waterbird Census, Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs), Wetland International and Bombay Natural History Society

  • Asian Waterbird Census (AWC) is co-coordinated by Wetlands International- as part of global programme, “International Waterbird Census”.
  • Survey would help understand changes to wetland systems, change in migratory pattern of birds & impact of climate change.
  • Information would be used to promote designation & mgmt. of protected areas, Ramsar Sites, Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas (IBAs) & so on.

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBAs)

  • IBA is initiative by BirdLife International.
  • Aims to identify, monitor & protect a global network of IBAs for conservation of world’s birds & associated biodiversity.
  • BirdLife’s IBA concept is developed & applied for over 30 years.
  • IBAs were identified only for terrestrial & freshwater environments.
  • In 2012, BirdLife published 1st Marine IBA “e-atlas”, w/details of 3,000 IBAs in coastal & territorial waters as well as on high seas.

About Wetland International

Wetlands International is a global organisation that works to sustain & restore wetlands & their resources for people and biodiversity. It is independent, not-for-profit, global organisation, supported by govt. & NGO membership from around world.

About Bombay Natural History Society

  • BNHS is a non govt. Organisation (NGO) founded in 1883. It engages itself in conservation of nature & natural resources & in research & conservation of endangered species.
  • Its mission is to conserve nature, primarily biological diversity thru action based on research, education & public awareness.
  • AWC is annually coordinated by Bombay Natural history Society (BNHS) & Wetlands International.
  • BNHS & Birdlife International have identified 467 IBAs in India.

Odisha: Second National Bird Festival at Chilika

  • Second National Bird Festival was held at Chilika
  • Aims to promote ecotourism & preservation of birds in state
  • Aims to promote & raise awareness about Chilika being largest repository of migratory birds in Asia
  • Mangalajodi, situated in NE Part of Chilika, largest brackish water lake of Asia, is known as “Birds Paradise of Asia”
  • Over one million migratory birds belonging to 181 diff. species were spotted in brackish water lake this year
  • Nalabana Bird Sanctuary is in Odisha
  • National Chilika Bird Festival Award was awarded to Mangalajodi Ecotourism Group for their active involvement in bird protection
  • Chilika, which lies in Central Asian Flyway for birds, is a major stopover for migratory birds from Arctic & Sub-Arctic regions in course of their onward & return migration along east coast.

Golden langur breeding project in Assam

Assam govt. has announced success of Golden Langur Conservation Breeding in state.

This project was undertaken at Assam State Zoo in Guwahati during 2011 - 12 fiscal.

Key Facts:

  • Funded by Central Zoo authority, an isolated & isolated & undisturbed site w/i zoo was chosen to provide natural habitat for primates w/golden coat endemic to Assam.
  • Zoo authorities had shifted a pair of golden langurs — Bolin & Lovely from display enclosure to isolated which resulted into birth of female infant.
  • Golden langur (Trachypithecusgeei) is currently endangered.
  • Apart from a 60 sq. mile area in northwestern Assam, small populations are found in Bhutan & Tripura.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 27, 2019

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