Expected Questions in Environment & Latest Developments 2019 – IAS/NET ( Part- 2) (SET-2) (Download PDF)

()

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 281.45 K)

Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Cultural model of Conservation

  • This is based on a respect for rights of indigenous peoples & other bearers of “traditional knowledge” & prevents social conflicts.

  • It involves forest dwellers in forest mgmt. & governance & acknowledges traditional rights of tribal over minor forest produce & provisions for making conservation more effective & more transparent.

  • Kinshasa Resolution of 1975 (under IUCN) provides international recognition to cultural model of conservation. It acknowledges importance of traditional ways of life & land ownership, & call on governments to maintain & encourage customary ways of living.

Polar Vortex

US mid-west experienced sub-zero temp. due to a breakdown in polar vortex.

Polar Vortex

  • It is large area of low pressure & cold air surrounding Earth’s North & South Pole.

  • Term refers to counterclockwise flow (clockwise over south pole) of air that helps keep colder air close to poles.

  • There are 2 polar vortexes in each hemisphere.

  • One exists in lowest layer of atmosphere, troposphere. Tropospheric polar vortex is one that affects our weather.

  • Other exists in 2nd lowest, called stratosphere. It is much more compact than its tropospheric counterpart.

  • If 2 polar vortexes line up just right, very deep freeze conditions may occur.

  • Boundary of polar vortex is really boundary b/w cold polar air to north & warmer sub-tropical air (considering Northern Hemisphere). Boundary is defined by polar front jet stream- a narrow band of very, very fast-moving air, moving from west to east.

  • Boundary shifts all time. It shrinks in summer, pole-ward while in winter, polar vortex sometimes becomes less stable & expands, sending cold air southward w/jet stream. This is called a polar vortex event (“breaking off” of a part of the vortex).

  • Break in polar vortex appears to be linked to long & chilly winter in north India this year.

Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

“Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” approved under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas to provide financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass & other renewable feedstock.

  • Aims to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector & support this nascent industry by creating suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects & increasing Research & Development in this area.

  • 12 Commercial Scale & 10 demonstration scale Second Generation (2G) ethanol Projects will be provided w/Viability Gap Funding (VGF) support in 2 phases:

  • Phase-I (2018 - 19 to 2022 - 23): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

  • Phase-II (2020 - 21 to 2023 - 24): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

  • Ethanol produced by scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to further enhance blending % under ethanol blending programme.

Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

“Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” approved under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas to provide financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass & other renewable feedstock.

  • Aims to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector & support this nascent industry by creating suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects & increasing Research & Development in this area.

  • 12 Commercial Scale & 10 demonstration scale Second Generation (2G) ethanol Projects will be provided w/Viability Gap Funding (VGF) support in 2 phases:

  • Phase-I (2018 - 19 to 2022 - 23): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

  • Phase-II (2020 - 21 to 2023 - 24): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

  • Ethanol produced by scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to further enhance blending % under ethanol blending programme.

Objectives of Scheme

  • Accomplishing GoI vision to reduce import dependence by way of substituting fossil fuels w/Biofuels.

  • Meeting of GHG emissions reduction targets thru progressive blending/substitution of fossil fuels.

  • Addressing environmental concerns caused due to burning of biomass/crop residues & to improve health of citizens.

  • Augmenting farmer’s income by providing them remunerative income for their otherwise waste agriculture residues.

  • Creation of rural & urban employment opportunities in 2G Ethanol projects & Biomass supply chain.

  • Complementing Swacch Bharat Mission by supporting aggregation of nonfood biofuel feedstocks like waste biomass & urban waste.

  • Indigenizing of 2nd Generation Biomass to Ethanol technologies.

Ganga rejuvenation

Govt. is focusing on Swachh Ganga & has aim for uninterrupted & unpolluted flow.

Focus of Clean Ganga project is on setting up sewage treatments plants & cleaning ghats & banks. Main issue: River does not have adequate flow of water is ignored.

  • Several hydropower projects are mushrooming at source of river, which is Garhwal range of Himalayas.

  • From Garhwal many rivers & tributaries of Ganga basin emerge. These spring- or glacier-fed rivers join one another at different points to form an intricate riverine ecosystem in Himalayas.

  • Entire basin falls in seismic zone 4 - 5 & is highly prone to landslides & land subsidence.

Construction of hydropower projects affect riverine ecosystem

  • To construct hydropower project – Deforestation is taking place in fragile mountain area. There is too much silt & flow of debris during monsoon & reduced flow of water in winters.

  • Impacts – loss of agriculture, drying of water sources as water is diverted into tunnels, landslips, severe distress to aquatic life &river bed is no longer even wet in certain stretches.

Reports of committees

  • 20 govt. committees & reports warn about anthropogenic activities in these fragile areas & recommend conservation of these areas for food & water security.

  • During dry season (November-March), 20 % of monthly average flow has to be maintained & during monsoon season, 30 % has to be maintained.

  • 20 % recommendation is less than scientific recommendation of 50%.

Conclusion

If govt. intends to rejuvenate river, 20 % e-flows norms are only for existing projects, rather than extending it to several such new projects.

Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj statue

  • PM laid foundation stone of statue of 17th century Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on island off Mumbai coast in Arabia Sea.

  • Statue is expected to be world’s tallest.

  • It will be 210 metres tall & will be constructed entirely in sea on oval-shaped rocky outcrop of 15.96 hectare.

  • 1st phase of memorial will be completed by 2019 & entire memorial by 2021.

  • On completion it will surpass height of Statue of Liberty in New York (US) & Statue of Unity of Saradar Vallabhbhai Patel in Gujarat.

Clean Ganga Fund

  • CGF is set up w/voluntary contributions from residents of country & Non-Resident Indian (NRIs) / Person of Indian Origin (PIO) & others.

  • Objective - contributing to national effort of cleaning of river Ganga.

  • Domestic donors to Fund shall be eligible for tax benefits as applicable in case of Swachh Bharat Kosh.

  • Fund would be managed by a Trust to be headed by Finance Minister.

Features of CGF:

  • CGF will explore possibility of setting up daughter funds in other jurisdictions/countries of high donor interest like USA, UK, Singapore, UAE, etc. to enable tax benefits to donors in their respective jurisdictions.

  • CGF will identify & fund specific projects which could be pilot projects, R&D projects, innovative projects or other focused projects.

  • CGF will be subject to such audit as required by law & audit by any agency determined by Govt.

Activities will be financed from Fund:

  • Activities outlined under ‘Namami Gange’ programme for cleaning of river Ganga.

  • Control of non-point pollution from agricultural runoff, human defecation, cattle wallowing, etc.

  • Setting up of waste treatment & disposal plants along river around the cities.

  • Conservation of biotic diversity of the river.

  • Community based activities to reduce polluting human interface with the river.

  • Development of public amenities including activities such as Ghat redevelopment.

  • Research and Development projects and innovative projects for new technology and processes for cleaning the river.

  • Independent oversight through intensive monitoring and real time reporting.

Green Skill Development Programme

MoEFCC launched Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP).

Aim – To train over 5.5 lakh workers in environment & forest sectors in country thru 30 courses by 2021 for sustainable conservation & mgmt. of natural resources.

GSDP-ENVIS mobile application was launched to provide more information & applying to courses under GSDP programme.

Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP)

  • Launched to develop green skilled workers having technical knowledge & commitment to sustainable development.

  • Skilling of youth (especially 10th & 12th dropouts) will be undertaken for increasing availability of skilled workforce in environment & forest sector to provide them gainful employment or self-employment.

  • Green skills will be imparted in more than 30 programs will be conducted in 84 institutions across country. Vast network & expertise of Environmental Information System (ENVIS) hubs & Resource Partners (RPs) will be utilized for implementation of this programme.

  • Skilling courses will be National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) compliant. MoEFCC will give certificates indicating skilling levels to all successful candidates.

Significance

  • Programme endeavours to develop green skilled workers having technical knowledge & commitment to sustainable development.

  • It will help in attainment of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), National Biodiversity Targets (NBTs) & Waste Management Rules 2016).

Nitrogen: largest PM2.5

PM2.5 - Refers to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3 % diameter of a human hair. Fine particles: power plants, motor vehicles, airplanes, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, volcanic eruptions & dust storms can come from various sources.

Key Pointers:

  • Nitrogen particles make up largest fraction of PM2.5

  • While burning of crop residue is said to be a key contributor to winter smog in many parts of North India, it contributes over 240 million kg of nitrogen oxides.

  • As fertilizer, nitrogen is one of main inputs for agriculture.

  • Agricultural soils contributed to over 70 % of N2O emissions from India in 2010, followed by waste water (12%) & residential & commercial activities (6%). Since 2002, N2O has replaced methane as 2nd largest GHG from Indian agriculture.

  • Chemical fertilizers (over 82 % of it is urea) account for over 77 % of all agricultural N2O emissions in India, while manure, compost make up rest.

  • Though agriculture remains largest contributor to nitrogen emissions, non-agricultural emissions of nitrogen oxides & nitrous oxide are growing rapidly.

  • Cattle account for 80 % of ammonia production, though their annual growth rate is 1%, due to a stable population.

  • India is globally biggest source of ammonia emission, nearly double that of NOx emissions.

  • NOx emissions will exceed ammonia emissions & touch 8.8 tonnes by 2055, studies highlight.

  • Nutrient recovery/recycling from waste water for agriculture could cut down N2O emissions from sewage & waste water by up to 40%.

‘Composite Water Management Index’ and Mihir Shah Committee on water management

Outcome of Composite Water Management Index

  • According to CWMI developed by Niti Aayog, 70 % of water resources are identified as polluted.

  • Gujarat, MP, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab & Telangana have initiated reforms for judicious water use, while populous ones like UP & Bihar have failed to respond to challenge.

  • Tamil Nadu has middling score, does well on augmentation of water sources, is abysmally poor in ensuring sustainable use for farming.

  • By 2030, country’s water demand is projected to be twice available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people & eventual 6 % loss in country’s GDP.

States were rated on basis of –

  • Performance in augmenting water resources & watersheds

  • Investing in infrastructure

  • Providing rural & urban drinking water

  • Encouraging efficient agricultural use

Mihir Shah Committee

  • In order to meet above demands, Committee on Restructuring Central Water Commission & Central Ground Water Board (chaired by Mihir Shah) was constituted.

  • Mihir Shah Committee has called for a user-centric approach to water mgmt. , especially in agriculture.

User-centric approach

  • Committee advocates decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States thru National Irrigation Management Fund.

  • It calls for awarding index rank, which would help States feel need to be competitive. It will foster “competitive & cooperative federalism”.

  • Committee suggests for robust data collection to understand groundwater extraction patterns, as less than 5 % of about 12 million wells are now under study.

  • Committee highlights growing pace of urbanization calls for a new mgmt. paradigm, augmenting sources of clean drinking water supply & treatment technologies that will encourage reuse. Pollution can be curbed by levying suitable costs.

Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Rules

According to PWM Rules, 2016, all States have to annually apprise Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on steps taken to reign in plastic use, whether a ban is in force, & strength & performance of a recycler & waste-processing network.

PWM Rules, 2016 aim to:

  • Increase min. thickness of plastic carry bags from 40 to 50 microns.

  • Expand jurisdiction of applicability from municipal area to rural areas, because plastic has reached rural areas.

  • Responsibility of local bodies & Gram Panchayat.

  • Collect back system of plastic waste.

  • To bring in responsibilities of producers & generators, both in plastic waste mgmt. system & to introduce collect back system of plastic waste.

  • Phasing out of manufacture & use of non- recyclable multilayered plastic: to be phased out in 2 years’ time.

  • To promote use of plastic waste for road construction as per Indian Road Congress

  • guidelines or energy recovery, or waste to oil etc. for gainful utilization of waste &

  • address waste disposal issue

Performance (according to latest CPCB report)

  • Only 24 States & UTs have complied with some of above directions.

  • Most states’ have imposed ban only in specific towns or cities.

  • Delhi, which reportedly generates largest quantity of plastic waste in country, has not provided information on its plastic mgmt. initiatives to CPCB.

  • Law requires that all plastic waste recyclers register themselves but there were around 312 unregistered plastic manufacturing/recycling units across India.

  • Most of States/UTs have not set up proper monitoring system for use of carry bags as per specified guidelines.

  • Maharashtra tops list on plastic waste generationCultural model of Conservation

    • This is based on a respect for rights of indigenous peoples & other bearers of “traditional knowledge” & prevents social conflicts.

    • It involves forest dwellers in forest mgmt. & governance & acknowledges traditional rights of tribal over minor forest produce & provisions for making conservation more effective & more transparent.

    • Kinshasa Resolution of 1975 (under IUCN) provides international recognition to cultural model of conservation. It acknowledges importance of traditional ways of life & land ownership, & call on governments to maintain & encourage customary ways of living.

    Polar Vortex

    US mid-west experienced sub-zero temp. due to a breakdown in polar vortex.

    Polar Vortex

    • It is large area of low pressure & cold air surrounding Earth’s North & South Pole.

    • Term refers to counterclockwise flow (clockwise over south pole) of air that helps keep colder air close to poles.

    • There are 2 polar vortexes in each hemisphere.

    • One exists in lowest layer of atmosphere, troposphere. Tropospheric polar vortex is one that affects our weather.

    • Other exists in 2nd lowest, called stratosphere. It is much more compact than its tropospheric counterpart.

    • If 2 polar vortexes line up just right, very deep freeze conditions may occur.

    • Boundary of polar vortex is really boundary b/w cold polar air to north & warmer sub-tropical air (considering Northern Hemisphere). Boundary is defined by polar front jet stream- a narrow band of very, very fast-moving air, moving from west to east.

    • Boundary shifts all time. It shrinks in summer, pole-ward while in winter, polar vortex sometimes becomes less stable & expands, sending cold air southward w/jet stream. This is called a polar vortex event (“breaking off” of a part of the vortex).

    • Break in polar vortex appears to be linked to long & chilly winter in north India this year.

    Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

    “Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” approved under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas to provide financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass & other renewable feedstock.

    • Aims to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector & support this nascent industry by creating suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects & increasing Research & Development in this area.

    • 12 Commercial Scale & 10 demonstration scale Second Generation (2G) ethanol Projects will be provided w/Viability Gap Funding (VGF) support in 2 phases:

    • Phase-I (2018 - 19 to 2022 - 23): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

    • Phase-II (2020 - 21 to 2023 - 24): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

    • Ethanol produced by scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to further enhance blending % under ethanol blending programme.

    Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN Yojana

    “Pradhan Mantri JI-VAN (Jaiv Indhan- Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” approved under Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas to provide financial support to Integrated Bioethanol Projects using lignocellulosic biomass & other renewable feedstock.

    • Aims to incentivise 2G Ethanol sector & support this nascent industry by creating suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects & increasing Research & Development in this area.

    • 12 Commercial Scale & 10 demonstration scale Second Generation (2G) ethanol Projects will be provided w/Viability Gap Funding (VGF) support in 2 phases:

    • Phase-I (2018 - 19 to 2022 - 23): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

    • Phase-II (2020 - 21 to 2023 - 24): 6 commercial projects & 5 demonstration projects will be supported.

    • Ethanol produced by scheme beneficiaries will be mandatorily supplied to Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) to further enhance blending % under ethanol blending programme.

    Objectives of Scheme

    • Accomplishing GoI vision to reduce import dependence by way of substituting fossil fuels w/Biofuels.

    • Meeting of GHG emissions reduction targets thru progressive blending/substitution of fossil fuels.

    • Addressing environmental concerns caused due to burning of biomass/crop residues & to improve health of citizens.

    • Augmenting farmer’s income by providing them remunerative income for their otherwise waste agriculture residues.

    • Creation of rural & urban employment opportunities in 2G Ethanol projects & Biomass supply chain.

    • Complementing Swacch Bharat Mission by supporting aggregation of nonfood biofuel feedstocks like waste biomass & urban waste.

    • Indigenizing of 2nd Generation Biomass to Ethanol technologies.

    Ganga rejuvenation

    Govt. is focusing on Swachh Ganga & has aim for uninterrupted & unpolluted flow.

    Focus of Clean Ganga project is on setting up sewage treatments plants & cleaning ghats & banks. Main issue: River does not have adequate flow of water is ignored.

    • Several hydropower projects are mushrooming at source of river, which is Garhwal range of Himalayas.

    • From Garhwal many rivers & tributaries of Ganga basin emerge. These spring- or glacier-fed rivers join one another at different points to form an intricate riverine ecosystem in Himalayas.

    • Entire basin falls in seismic zone 4 - 5 & is highly prone to landslides & land subsidence.

    Construction of hydropower projects affect riverine ecosystem

    • To construct hydropower project – Deforestation is taking place in fragile mountain area. There is too much silt & flow of debris during monsoon & reduced flow of water in winters.

    • Impacts – loss of agriculture, drying of water sources as water is diverted into tunnels, landslips, severe distress to aquatic life &river bed is no longer even wet in certain stretches.

    Reports of committees

    • 20 govt. committees & reports warn about anthropogenic activities in these fragile areas & recommend conservation of these areas for food & water security.

    • During dry season (November-March), 20 % of monthly average flow has to be maintained & during monsoon season, 30 % has to be maintained.

    • 20 % recommendation is less than scientific recommendation of 50%.

    Conclusion

    If govt. intends to rejuvenate river, 20 % e-flows norms are only for existing projects, rather than extending it to several such new projects.

    Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj statue

    • PM laid foundation stone of statue of 17th century Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj on island off Mumbai coast in Arabia Sea.

    • Statue is expected to be world’s tallest.

    • It will be 210 metres tall & will be constructed entirely in sea on oval-shaped rocky outcrop of 15.96 hectare.

    • 1st phase of memorial will be completed by 2019 & entire memorial by 2021.

    • On completion it will surpass height of Statue of Liberty in New York (US) & Statue of Unity of Saradar Vallabhbhai Patel in Gujarat.

    Clean Ganga Fund

    • CGF is set up w/voluntary contributions from residents of country & Non-Resident Indian (NRIs) / Person of Indian Origin (PIO) & others.

    • Objective - contributing to national effort of cleaning of river Ganga.

    • Domestic donors to Fund shall be eligible for tax benefits as applicable in case of Swachh Bharat Kosh.

    • Fund would be managed by a Trust to be headed by Finance Minister.

    Features of CGF:

    • CGF will explore possibility of setting up daughter funds in other jurisdictions/countries of high donor interest like USA, UK, Singapore, UAE, etc. to enable tax benefits to donors in their respective jurisdictions.

    • CGF will identify & fund specific projects which could be pilot projects, R&D projects, innovative projects or other focused projects.

    • CGF will be subject to such audit as required by law & audit by any agency determined by Govt.

    Activities will be financed from Fund:

    • Activities outlined under ‘Namami Gange’ programme for cleaning of river Ganga.

    • Control of non-point pollution from agricultural runoff, human defecation, cattle wallowing, etc.

    • Setting up of waste treatment & disposal plants along river around the cities.

    • Conservation of biotic diversity of the river.

    • Community based activities to reduce polluting human interface with the river.

    • Development of public amenities including activities such as Ghat redevelopment.

    • Research and Development projects and innovative projects for new technology and processes for cleaning the river.

    • Independent oversight through intensive monitoring and real time reporting.

    Green Skill Development Programme

    MoEFCC launched Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP).

    Aim – To train over 5.5 lakh workers in environment & forest sectors in country thru 30 courses by 2021 for sustainable conservation & mgmt. of natural resources.

    GSDP-ENVIS mobile application was launched to provide more information & applying to courses under GSDP programme.

    Green Skill Development Programme (GSDP)

    • Launched to develop green skilled workers having technical knowledge & commitment to sustainable development.

    • Skilling of youth (especially 10th & 12th dropouts) will be undertaken for increasing availability of skilled workforce in environment & forest sector to provide them gainful employment or self-employment.

    • Green skills will be imparted in more than 30 programs will be conducted in 84 institutions across country. Vast network & expertise of Environmental Information System (ENVIS) hubs & Resource Partners (RPs) will be utilized for implementation of this programme.

    • Skilling courses will be National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) compliant. MoEFCC will give certificates indicating skilling levels to all successful candidates.

    Significance

    • Programme endeavours to develop green skilled workers having technical knowledge & commitment to sustainable development.

    • It will help in attainment of Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), National Biodiversity Targets (NBTs) & Waste Management Rules 2016).

    Nitrogen: largest PM2.5

    PM2.5 - Refers to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) that have a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometers, which is about 3 % diameter of a human hair. Fine particles: power plants, motor vehicles, airplanes, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, volcanic eruptions & dust storms can come from various sources.

    Key Pointers:

    • Nitrogen particles make up largest fraction of PM2.5

    • While burning of crop residue is said to be a key contributor to winter smog in many parts of North India, it contributes over 240 million kg of nitrogen oxides.

    • As fertilizer, nitrogen is one of main inputs for agriculture.

    • Agricultural soils contributed to over 70 % of N2O emissions from India in 2010, followed by waste water (12%) & residential & commercial activities (6%). Since 2002, N2O has replaced methane as 2nd largest GHG from Indian agriculture.

    • Chemical fertilizers (over 82 % of it is urea) account for over 77 % of all agricultural N2O emissions in India, while manure, compost make up rest.

    • Though agriculture remains largest contributor to nitrogen emissions, non-agricultural emissions of nitrogen oxides & nitrous oxide are growing rapidly.

    • Cattle account for 80 % of ammonia production, though their annual growth rate is 1%, due to a stable population.

    • India is globally biggest source of ammonia emission, nearly double that of NOx emissions.

    • NOx emissions will exceed ammonia emissions & touch 8.8 tonnes by 2055, studies highlight.

    • Nutrient recovery/recycling from waste water for agriculture could cut down N2O emissions from sewage & waste water by up to 40%.

    ‘Composite Water Management Index’ and Mihir Shah Committee on water management

    Outcome of Composite Water Management Index

    • According to CWMI developed by Niti Aayog, 70 % of water resources are identified as polluted.

    • Gujarat, MP, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab & Telangana have initiated reforms for judicious water use, while populous ones like UP & Bihar have failed to respond to challenge.

    • Tamil Nadu has middling score, does well on augmentation of water sources, is abysmally poor in ensuring sustainable use for farming.

    • By 2030, country’s water demand is projected to be twice available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people & eventual 6 % loss in country’s GDP.

    States were rated on basis of –

    • Performance in augmenting water resources & watersheds

    • Investing in infrastructure

    • Providing rural & urban drinking water

    • Encouraging efficient agricultural use

    Mihir Shah Committee

    • In order to meet above demands, Committee on Restructuring Central Water Commission & Central Ground Water Board (chaired by Mihir Shah) was constituted.

    • Mihir Shah Committee has called for a user-centric approach to water mgmt. , especially in agriculture.

    User-centric approach

    • Committee advocates decentralisation of irrigation commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States thru National Irrigation Management Fund.

    • It calls for awarding index rank, which would help States feel need to be competitive. It will foster “competitive & cooperative federalism”.

    • Committee suggests for robust data collection to understand groundwater extraction patterns, as less than 5 % of about 12 million wells are now under study.

    • Committee highlights growing pace of urbanization calls for a new mgmt. paradigm, augmenting sources of clean drinking water supply & treatment technologies that will encourage reuse. Pollution can be curbed by levying suitable costs.

    Plastic Waste Management (PWM) Rules

    According to PWM Rules, 2016, all States have to annually apprise Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on steps taken to reign in plastic use, whether a ban is in force, & strength & performance of a recycler & waste-processing network.

    PWM Rules, 2016 aim to:

    • Increase min. thickness of plastic carry bags from 40 to 50 microns.

    • Expand jurisdiction of applicability from municipal area to rural areas, because plastic has reached rural areas.

    • Responsibility of local bodies & Gram Panchayat.

    • Collect back system of plastic waste.

    • To bring in responsibilities of producers & generators, both in plastic waste mgmt. system & to introduce collect back system of plastic waste.

    • Phasing out of manufacture & use of non- recyclable multilayered plastic: to be phased out in 2 years’ time.

    • To promote use of plastic waste for road construction as per Indian Road Congress

    • guidelines or energy recovery, or waste to oil etc. for gainful utilization of waste &

    • address waste disposal issue

    Performance (according to latest CPCB report)

    • Only 24 States & UTs have complied with some of above directions.

    • Most states’ have imposed ban only in specific towns or cities.

    • Delhi, which reportedly generates largest quantity of plastic waste in country, has not provided information on its plastic mgmt. initiatives to CPCB.

    • Law requires that all plastic waste recyclers register themselves but there were around 312 unregistered plastic manufacturing/recycling units across India.

    • Most of States/UTs have not set up proper monitoring system for use of carry bags as per specified guidelines.

    • Maharashtra tops list on plastic waste generation

- Published/Last Modified on: April 16, 2019

Environment/Ecology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.