Expected Questions in Environment & Latest Developments 2019 – IAS/NET ( Part-3) (Set-2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Virtual climate summit

  • World leaders to participate in innovative climate change summit that will take place entirely online so it is carbon neutral.

  • Virtual Climate Summit is brainchild of Marshall Islands President Hilda Heine, whose low-lying Pacific island nation will drown beneath rising seas if global warming continues unabated.

  • It will be 1st global political meeting to be held online.

  • Virtual summit’s main aim is to encourage international community to keep global warming to 1.5 above pre-industrial levels.

  • Latest round of UN climate talks, COP24, will open in southern Polish city of Katowice on 2nd Dec. 2 with aim of reinvigorating Paris agreement.

  • 2018 CVF Summit is organized as part of Talanoa Dialogue, which serves as agreed mechanism for promotion of enhanced national action by all nations party to Paris Agreement by 2020.

  • Summit is opportunity for all nations to show leadership & commit to raising their level of ambition in solidarity w/most vulnerable.

  • Event includes “plenary” statements & “thematic discussions” on key topics each convened by leading organizations.

Atmosphere and Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS) and National Facility for Airborne Research (NFAR)

  • Govt. has approved continuation of 9 sub-schemes of umbrella scheme “Atmosphere & Climate Research-Modelling Observing Systems & Services (ACROSS) ” during 2017 - 2020. Scheme will be implemented by Ministry of Earth Sciences.

  • ACROSS scheme pertains to atmospheric science programs of Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) & addresses different aspects of weather & climate services, which includes warnings for cyclone, storm surges, heat waves, thunderstorms etc.

  • ACROSS scheme consists of 9 sub-programmes which are multi disciplinary & multi institutional in nature & will be implemented in integrated manner thru IMD, HIM, NCMRWF & INCOIS.

  • Scheme will provide improved weather, climate & ocean forecast & services, thereby ensuring transfer of commensurate benefits to various services like Public weather service, disaster mgmt. , Agro-meteorological Services, Aviation services, Environmental monitoring services, Hydro-meteorological services, climate services, tourism, pilgrimage, power generation, water mgmt. , Sports & adventure etc.

National Facility for Airborne Research (NFAR)

  • NFAR is imp. national facility to improved forecast of rainfall required by farmers.

  • Data collected thru various missions under NFAR activity & subsequent research carried out will be beneficial to Indian Climate research program, India Meteorological Department (IMD), National Centre for Medium Range Forecasting (NCMRWF) for improving cloud microphysical schemes in numerical models.

  • Other national research institutions & several universities will be benefited by getting involved in observational programs.

Green India Mission: Expanding ‘good’ green cover in India

Green India Mission is 1 of 8 missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change.

National Mission for a Green India

Aims at protecting; restoring & enhancing India’s diminishing forest cover & responding to climate change by combination of adaptation & mitigation measures.

Mission Goals

  • To increase forest/tree cover to extent of 5 mha & improve quality of forest/tree cover on another 5 mha of forest/non-forest lands;

  • To improve/enhance eco-system services like carbon sequestration & storage (in forests & other ecosystems), hydrological services & biodiversity; along w/provisioning services like fuel, fodder & timber & non-timber forest produces (NTFPs);

  • To increase forest based livelihood income of about 3 million households.

Study examines effectiveness of Green India Mission

  • India’s target to bring 33 % of its total land under forest cover is more a result of colonial hangover rather than backed by science.

  • Target was primarily developed by Europeans

  • Mission aims to improve forest-based livelihoods, initiative has all qualities to disinherit or cut-off forest-rooted populations.

  • Remains entirely unclear whether large-scale plantations have positive effects on socioeconomic conditions of communities & such efforts have significant negative impacts on local communities in terms of employment, livelihoods & other intertwined’ social impacts.

New Coastal Regulation Zone Notification and Role of Civil Societies

Recent Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 2018 ignores vulnerabilities of coastal regions to climate change.

New CRZ notification is said to benefit hospitality/tourism industries & local economies, lives & livelihood of thousands of citizens continue to be at risk.

Concerns:

  • India’s vulnerabilities to climate challenges should not be ignored.

  • Govt. , businesses & civil society have responsibility of constructive action to address this environmental challenge.

Role of civil society

  • Civil societies have played imp. role in containing policies that can contribute to climate catastrophes & precarious situations.

  • It helps to establish sustainable mitigative measures & improve quality of life in multiple dimensions — physical environment, health & finance.

  • It helps to bring changes in consumption-related thinking & behaviour.

  • Their involvement offers tremendous opportunity for citizens’ needs to be heard.

  • It plays assertive role in forcing shift in current stance & shaping country’s climate policy.

Vital tool: Bringing changes in consumption-related thinking and behaviour

  • Important for sustainability

  • Making mobility choices that result in efficient fuel use & lower carbon emissions.

  • It calls for considering alternative sources of domestic electricity.

  • Alter use of cooling devices & power.

Environmental Agenda for 2019

Some major policies & programmes were launched to tackle issues ranging from air pollution to plastic pollution.

India’s agenda for 2019 should be:

  • Fulfil the international obligations

  • Implement the National Clear Air Programme:

    • National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

    • 20 - 30 % reduction of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration by 2024.

  • Ban single-use plastics:

  • Strengthen Swachh Bharat Mission:

  • National and State Action Plan on Climate Change:

  • Implement National Action Plan on AMR:

  • Get the Forest Policy and Act right:

  • National River Revitalisation Plan:

  • Ban all Class I pesticides:

  • Control desertification:

  • Strengthen Pollution Control Boards

At international level 2 major agreements got underway—

  • Rulebook to implement Paris Agreement was adopted

  • Kigali Amendment to Montreal Protocol came into effect from January 1,2019

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)

CCPI is instrument covering 58 countries & supposed to enhance transparency in international climate politics.

Aim is to encourage political & social pressure on those countries which have failed to take ambitious actions on climate protection & to highlight countries w/best-practice climate policies.

Highlights of report:

  • Only few countries have started working towards limiting global warming below 2°C or even at 1.5°C.

  • Sweden is in top position, followed by Morocco & Lithuania.

  • Bottoms 5 in list are Saudi Arabia, U. S. , Iran, South Korea & Taiwan.

India’s Performance:

India ranks 11th in this year’s CCPI, improving its standing by 3 places compared to previous edition.

Evaluation:

  • Index evaluates & compares climate protection performance of 58 countries that are responsible for more than 90 % of global energy-related CO2 emissions.

  • 80 % of evaluation is based on objective indicators of emissions trend & emissions level.

  • 20 % of index results are built upon national & international climate policy assessments by more than 200 experts from respective countries.

National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

Programme aims to tackle challenge of increasing pollution in cities & towns.

Features of Programme

  • 5-year action plan w/tentative target of 20 - 30 % reduction in concentrations of PM10 & PM2.5 by 2024, w/2017 as base year.

  • Plan covers 102 non-attainment cities, across 23 states & UTs, identified by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on basis of air quality data b/w 2011 & 2015.

  • Studies would be conducted across 102 non-attainment cities to ascertain pollution sources & extent of their contribution.

  • Each city would be asked to develop its own action plan for implementation based on sources of pollution.

  • 3-tier system - real-time physical data collection, data archiving, & action trigger system in 102 cities, besides extensive plantation plans, research on clean-technologies, landscaping of major arterial roads & stringent industrial standards are proposed under plan.

  • State-level plans of e-mobility in 2-wheeler sector, rapid augmentation of charging infrastructure, stringent implementation of BS-VI norms, boosting public transportation system & adoption of 3rd party audits for polluting industries are proposed part of plan.

South Asian Nitrogen Hub (SANH)

British govt. has announced research project, South Asian Nitrogen Hub to study nitrogen pollution in India & South Asia.

Project led by UK’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology will partner w/50 organisations from UK & South Asia.

Indian Institutions partnering study are:

  • National Institute of Oceanography

  • Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University

  • Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology

  • Jawaharlal Nehru University

  • Aligarh Muslim University

  • National Physical Laboratory

  • TERI University

Project aims to study impact of diff. forms of nitrogen pollution, looking at nitrogen in agriculture in 8 countries of South Asia which includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan & Maldives.

Key Pointers:

  • Nitrogen particles make up largest fraction of PM2.5

  • While Nitrogen is dominant gas in atmosphere, it is inert & doesn’t react. When it is released as part of compounds from agriculture, sewage & biological waste, nitrogen is considered “reactive”, & may pollute & even exert potent greenhouse gas (heat trapping) effect.

  • Agriculture remains largest contributor to nitrogen emissions followed by sewage & organic solid wastes.

  • Nitrous oxide is 300 times more potent than carbon dioxide but isn’t as prevalent in atmosphere. This is poised to grow.

  • Reactive nitrogen pollution will be a matter of significant global discussion.

  • NOx emissions in India grew at 52 % from 1991 to 2001 & 69 % from 2001 to 2011.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 11, 2019

Environment/Ecology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.