Expected Questions in International Organizations  2019 – IAS/NET (Part-4) - (Set 2) (Download PDF)


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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030 and bilateral ties with India

Saudi Vision 2030 is plan to reduce Saudi Arabia’s dependence on oil, diversify its economy & develop public service sectors like health, education, infrastructure, recreation & tourism.

Under Vision 2030, Saudi Arabia aims to –

  • Focus more towards sustainable development.
  • Focus on massive projects directed towards building a vibrant society, a thriving economy & ambitious nation.
  • Get ready for Post-Oil Age by transforming/diversifying its economy.
  • Aims to attract $427 billion in private investments over next decade to diversify economy & create 1.6 million new jobs thru National Industrial Development & Logistics Programme. Make Saudi Arabia a global innovation hub.
  • Transform into advanced knowledge-based economy built on innovation & entrepreneurship.
  • According to World Bank’s ‘Doing Business 2018’ report, Saudi Arabia has instituted largest number of business reforms among countries in Middle East & North Africa (MENA) region as of July 2017.
  • Starting a business in Kingdom now requires only one step & one day.

Bilateral trade potential

  • India & Saudi Arabia have more opportunities today to tap into than ever before.
  • Saudi Arabia & India can engage in a host of new areas like information & communications technology (ICT), health care, defence, biotechnology, education & infrastructure among others.
  • India is one of top countries on Kingdom’s preferred list with great potential for investment in organic & food processing industries.
  • Energy partnership - Saudi Aramco to invest more in Indian companies & value chain from oil supply, marketing & refining to petrochemicals & lubricants. For instance, $44 billion integrated refinery & petrochemicals complex at Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, being jointly developed by Saudi Aramco, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) & consortium of Indian public sector units (PSUs).
  • India & Saudi@recent G20 summit – Both sides agreed to set up a high-level mechanism to boost concrete actions in terms of investment, technology & manufacturing across various sectors.

India-Saudi-Pakistan triangle

India and Saudi Arabia:

  • India & Saudi Arabia enjoy cordial & friendly relations reflecting centuries old economic & socio-cultural ties.
  • 2 sides re-affirmed their deep commitment to strengthen ‘strategic partnership’ envisaged in ‘Riyadh Declaration’ of February 2010
  • Saudi Arabia is India’s 4th largest trading partner & India has long played imp. role in our economy.

Visit of Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia to India:

  • Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, or MBS, will lead to further strengthening of Saudi Arabia-Indian ties, a process that had begun w/PM’s visit to Riyadh in 2016.
  • Saudi interest in expanding trade & investment in India & collaboration in energy sector.
  • Saudi Arabia is one of 3 largest suppliers of oil to India. It would share intelligence with India & other countries, that were willing to fight terrorism.
  • Joint Statement urged for early adoption of UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism

Visit of Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia to India:

  • Both sides resolved to create comprehensive security dialogue consisting of National Security Advisors. There would a Joint Working Group on counter terrorism.
  • Both sides launched Strategic Partnership Council. Saudi Arabia joined International Solar Alliance.
  • Both sides agreed to expedite work for $44 billion West Coast Refinery & Petrochemical Complex.
  • Saudi Aramco is interested in partnering w/Abu Dhabi National Oil Company in developing integrated refinery & petrochemicals complex at Ratnagiri in Maharashtra, a $44 billion joint venture w/Indian public sector involvement.

India & Saudi Arabia relations reflects Economic but with Pakistan shows Strategic:

  • Pakistan Army has more than once acted as Saudi ruler’s praetorian (security body guards) guard.
  • Pakistan on its part perceives MBS as a valuable interlocutor on its behalf w/U. S. because of his excellent rapport w/U. S. President Donald Trump.
  • Saudi economic largesse matters greatly to Pakistan, which is in dire economic straits & is forced to turn to International Monetary Fund (IMF) for loans that are bound to come w/strict conditionalities.
  • Large part is earmarked for investment in construction of an oil refinery in Gwadar on Makran coast, which is being developed as a strategic port by China & features prominently in China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) plan.

To Dealing with Afghanistan Taliban:

  • Afghanistan is point of strategic convergence for Pakistan & Saudi Arabia going back to 1980s when Saudis used Pakistan as a conduit for material assistance to Islamist forces fighting Soviet Union & its proxy govt. in Kabul.
  • With U. S. withdrawal from Afghanistan & consequent expansion of Taliban influence very much on cards, Pakistan’s strategic value as Taliban’s patron has grown exponentially.
  • Saudi Arabia is interested in curbing Iranian influence in Afghanistan & needs Pakistan to contain Tehran’s ability to influence events in that country after American withdrawal through its Tajik & Hazara allies.

Wuzhen meet and India-Saudi ties

India & China are expected to hold their 1st high-level talks on Pulwama terror attack.

India pitches for global action against terrorism

  • India pitched for global action against terrorism while welcoming Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman visit to India.
  • Saudi Arabia agreed to share intelligence w/India & other countries that were willing to fight terrorism.
  • Both countries urged for early adoption of UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism & pitched for “comprehensive sanctioning of terrorists & their organisations by UN. “
  • Both sides resolved to create a “Comprehensive Security Dialogue” consisting of National Security Advisers & set up a Joint Working Group on Counter Terrorism. Both sides launched a Strategic Partnership Council.
  • During visit of Mohammed Bin Salman, Saudi Arabia joined the International Solar Alliance (ISA).

Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, 1963

India had moved International Court of Justice stating that Pakistan has violated rules of Vienna Convention on Consular Relations in detention, trial & conviction of Kulbushan Yadav an Indian Naval officer.

Indian team at International Court called on court to adjudicate on “egregious” breach of Vienna Convention on Consular Relations & to order that Kulbhushan Jadhav be given consular access.

India insisted that contrary to Pakistan’s contention, Vienna convention is not subject to exceptions on any grounds — including national security & espionage.

About Vienna convention on consular Relations

  • Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963 is international treaty that defines framework for consular relations b/w independent states. Article 36 of Vienna convention is highlighted in recent fit b/w India & Pakistan pertaining to Kulbushan Yadav case.
  • Consul performs 2 functions: protecting in host country interests of their countrymen & furthering relations between 2 states.
  • Article 36 states that, if any foreign national is detained or arrested on criminal or immigration charges, he/she is entitled to be notified about right to notify detainee country’s consulate of his/her arrest. If detained person requests, police ought to fax notice to embassy. It provides for a regular consultation w/consular officials during detention & any trial if needed. Essential core of article is to provide communication b/w national & his/her country’s officials when held in foreign land.

India-Fiji Relations

India & Fiji has signed MoU on defence cooperation in New Delhi.

MoU envisaged cooperation on defence industry, military training, humanitarian assistance & disaster management.

Defence partnership & maritime security & naval cooperation were identified as area of promise.

MoU provides for stepping up of defence & security ties in defence production & military training.


  • Fiji is archipelago consisting of 332 islands located in heart of Pacific Ocean. Main ethnic groups in Fiji include Fijian, Indian, European & other Pacific Islanders.
  • As of now, around 37 % of total inhabitants of country are of Indian origin.
  • India was represented by a commissioner since 1948 to look after interests of people of Indian origin. After Fiji’s independence in 1970, commissioner’s post was upgraded to that of High Commissioner.
  • India & Fiji’s bilateral ties have grown steadily in past few years. Several MoUs are signed between 2 countries in fields of health, Tourism, IT, defence and security.

India and Pakistan: Humanitarian Gesture

  • In a peace overture, India has asked Pakistan to take back dozens of Pakistani nationals who have completed jail terms here.
  • Both countries exchanged lists of convicts who have completed terms.
  • India handed over a list of 249 civilian Pakistani prisoners & 98 fishermen in its custody.
  • Pakistan shared lists of 54 civilian prisoners & 483 fishermen in its jails, who it claims are Indian.
Image of Humanitarian Gesture

Image of Humanitarian Gesture

Image of Humanitarian Gesture

Raisina Dialogue 2019

4th edition of Raisina Dialogue, India’s flagship annual conference on geopolitics & geo-economics, titled ‘World Reorder’, was recently held in New Delhi.

“Fair Value for Innovation”:

  • US Chamber of Commerce’s Global Innovation Policy Center (GIPC) launched new innovation initiative at Raisina Dialogue in New Delhi.
  • Initiative, titled “Fair Value for Innovation”, would enable breakthrough innovation & explore how policymakers can harness innovation capital in India & around globe thru research, advocacy, partnerships & programs.

About Raisina Dialogue:

  • Annual geo-political event, organised by Ministry of External Affairs & Observer Research Foundation (ORF).
  • Designed to explore prospects & opportunities for Asian integration & Asia’s integration w/larger world. It is predicated on India’s vital role in Indian Ocean Region & how India along w/its partners can build a stable regional & world order.

Participants: Conference is multi-stakeholder, cross-sectoral meeting involving policy & decision-makers, including but not limited to Foreign, Defence &Finance Ministers of diff. countries, high-level govt. officials & policy practitioners, leading personalities from business & industry & members of strategic community, media & academia.

Significance of event:

  • Raisina Dialogue was born in 2016, in belief that Asian century that world was talking about was not about any exclusive geographical region. It was rather about engagement of global actors with Asia & of Asia w/world. So this dialogue took birth as a platform, where old & new could work together, to discover their connections, their inter-dependence.

India-US: 2 + 2 intercession

India & U. S. reviewed progress on finalising 2 key agreements during recently held 2 + 2 intercession.

2 key agreements are Industrial Security Annex (ISA) & Basic Exchange & Cooperation Agreement for Geo-spatial Cooperation (BECA).

ISA is particularly essential as Indian industry looks for a greater role in defence manufacturing. It allows sharing of classified information from U. S. government & American companies w/Indian private sector, which is so far limited to Indian government & defence public sector undertakings.

Image of Industrial Security Annex (ISA)

Image of Industrial Security Annex (ISA)

Image of Industrial Security Annex (ISA)

India and South Africa relations: Red Fort Declaration

  • India, South Africa to revise 22-year-old Strategic Partnership
  • Strategic Partnership b/w India & South Africa, called Red Fort Declaration, was signed in March 1997 by then South African President Nelson Mandela & former PM H. D. Deve Gowda.
  • 3-year plan of action on security cooperation, trade & investment, tourism, harnessing the ‘blue economy’, maritime cooperation, agriculture, science & technology projects.
  • South African defence firm Denel was barred from doing business in India since 2005. Denel was finally removed from blacklist in September 2018 after Central Bureau of Investigation filed a closure report & Supreme Court subsequently dismissed corruption charges against company.

India and China: China pushes “5 C” approach

  • India should join “trilateral” mechanism w/China & Pakistan, Chinese envoy to India suggesting that idea for a trilateral meeting on sidelines of SCO had come from Indian officials or experts.
  • Security cooperation is 1 of 3 pillars of SCO. Some Indian friends suggested that China, India & Pakistan may have some kind of trilateral cooperation under SCO.
  • Ambassador said a dialogue b/w Russia-China-Mongolia was conducted on SCO sidelines despite their historical differences, suggesting that one w/India & Pakistan may be a possibility as well.
  • China’s Ambassador to India suggested a “5 C” approach to bettering India-China ties w/more “communication, cooperation, contacts, coordination & control (& mgmt. of differences”.
  • China will import more sugar, non-Basmati rice & high quality medicines from India to reduce trade imbalance.
  • New bilateral trade target is set for $100 billion by 2022.
  • India agreed to facilitate establishment of Bank of China branch office in Mumbai.

On Afghanistan

  • India-China cooperation in Afghanistan agreed to during Wuhan Summit would for capacity building & training of Afghan civil servants as part of what called “China India Plus” cooperation.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 27, 2019

International Relations/Organizations

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.