Expected Questions in International Organizations 2019 – (Part 3) (Set-1) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

G20 summit and trilateral meetings JAI and RIC

India held its first trilateral meeting w/US & Japan, partnership named as ‘JAI’.

“JAI” – name for triumvirate of Japan, America & India. Leaders of JAI exchanged views on Indo Pacific, maritime & connectivity issues.

3 leaders reaffirmed importance of Free & Open Indo-Pacific vision for global stability & prosperity & pledged to deepen trilateral cooperation.

G20 summit, Buenos Aires, Argentina

  • G20 is premier forum for its members’ international economic cooperation & decision-making. Its membership comprises 19 countries plus European Union.
  • G20 started in 1999. India is a member of G20.
  • In 2008, first G20 Leaders’ Summit was held & group played a key role in responding to global financial crisis.
  • G20 is supported by international organisations, including Financial Stability Board, International Labour Organisation, International Monetary Fund, Organisation for Economic Co-operation & Development, UN, World Bank & World Trade Organization.
  • In Argentina’s G20 summit many issues will be discussed such as global economy, sustainable development, climate change, and fugitive economic offenders.
  • Second Russia-India-China ‘RIC’ Trilateral Summit took place in Buenos Aires after a gap of 12 years.
  • Leaders discussed cooperation & coordination in various areas which could contribute to global peace & stability.
  • India has emerged common factor in 2 G-20 trilaterals.

Russia successfully tests hypersonic missile

Russia has new type of strategic weapon which would render existing missile systems obsolete.

Intercontinental “Avangard” system would be ready for use from 2019.

Missile could fly at 20 times speed of sound & manoeuvre up & down, meaning that it could breach defence systems.

Final test was conducted after U. S. President Donald Trump announced plans to pull out of key Cold War-era nuclear weapons pact, 3-decade-old IntermediateRange Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF).

Kinzhal missile System

  • Kinzhal, name means double-edged Russian dagger. It has range of 2,000km.
  • It is equipped w/high-precision aeroballistic missiles supporting air strikes w/o entering enemy’s air defence zone. It can overcome air-defence systems.
  • Missile system has no counterparts across globe owing to high flight performance characteristic of MiG-31 fighter jet & hypersonic missile w/small radar signature & high maneuverability.
  • 1st air unit equipped w/Kinzhal system was deployed in Russia’s Southern Military District in December 2017.

Foreign policy shift in 2018

2018, has marked a year of reaching out in region by current govt. in general.

“Wuhan summit” w/Chinese President & “Sochi retreat” w/Russian President merited much attention, it is imp. to take stock of attempts at rapprochement in immediate neighbourhood.

Recent events of change in posture by Indian govt. to neighbours countrys like:

Maldives, China, Nepal, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan & Sri Lanka

Speculated causes of this Change:

  • Sustained backlash from govt. in Nepal especially w/support of Nepalese electorate led to a need to follow accommodative policy.
  • Positive changes in circumstances like new President in Maldives or opening of Kartarpur corridor needed to be positively accommodated rather than dismissed
  • Pursuing both competition & cooperation w/neighbours based on national interest such as seen with China.
  • India’s aggression under Big Brother policy enhanced attractiveness of China as balancer in South Asia & therefore a change in posture was necessary.

Bhutan 750 megawatt Mangdechhu hydropower project

  • Project - built on Mangdechhu River in Trongsa Dzongkhag Dist. of central Bhutan.
  • Mangdechhu Hydroelectric Project Authority (MHPA) is developing the project. It is one of 10 hydroelectric projects planned under Royal Govt. of Bhutan’s initiative to generate 10,000MW hydropower by 2020 w/support from GoI.
  • Agreement was signed b/w 2 govt. for execution of Mangdechhu HEPP in April 2010.

Details

  • Project will comprise 101.5m-high concrete gravity dam from deepest foundation level, 2 intake tunnels of 196m & 150m length & a 13.54km long headrace tunnel capable of discharging 118m³ of water a second.
  • 152m-high surge shaft will be 13.5m in diameter & water will be fed to underground power house thru 2 steel-lined pressure shafts measuring 1,853m long & 3.5m in diameter.
  • Project will comprise 4 180MW Pelton turbines to be supplied by Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL).
  • Main cavern of underground power house will be 53m high & 231m long.

Bogibeel: A bridge across the Brahmaputra

Bogibeel Bridge - inaugurated on birth anniversary of late Atal Bihari Vajpayee i. e. twenty fifth Dec. , observed as “Good Governance Day”.

4.9 km-long bridge is nation’s fully welded bridge & for 1st time European codes & welding standards were adhered to & it has a life of abt 120 years.

Bridge connects southern bank of Brahmaputra River in Assam’s Dibrugarh dist. w/Silapathar in Dhemaji dist. , bordering Arunachal Pradesh.

Double-Track & 3-lane Road Bridge will be lifeline of north-eastern part of India

Benefits of Bridge

  • It reduces travel time from Assam to Arunachal Pradesh to 4 hours & will eliminate detour of over 170 km via Tinsukia.
  • It reduces train travel time b/w Delhi & Dibrugarh by about 3 hours.
  • Bridge will play imp. role in defence of country by facilitating ease of mobility to India-China border in Arunachal Pradesh & 3 road lanes of bridge can act as 3 landing strips for Air Force.

Afghanistan Jalalabad Incident

Recently, suicide bomber targeted a group of Sikhs & Hindus on their way to meet Afghanistan’s president in eastern Afghan city of Jalalabad.

17 out of 19 dead in attack were from minority Sikh and Hindu community.

Suicide attack is warning from Islamic State to war-torn country’s unsound or deteriorating political & security apparatus.

Attack claimed life of only Sikh candidate running for elections this year. Incident speaks volumes of plight of minorities in a country once celebrated for its diversity.

Background:

  • Sikhs & Hindus have long suffered widespread discrimination in conservative Muslim country & been targeted by Islamic extremists. Community is comprised of only around 1,000 people.
  • Under Taliban rule in late 1990s, they were told to identify themselves by wearing yellow armbands, but dictate was not wholly enforced. In recent years, large numbers of Sikhs & Hindus have sought asylum in India, which has Hindu majority & large Sikh population.

Major concern:

  • IS set up its Afghan affiliate as a South Asian outpost when its so-called caliphate in Iraq & Syria came under strain. Afghanistan is relatively easier terrain for IS to recruit fighters from & occupy turf.
  • When govt. & Taliban were fighting each other, IS built a network in certain provinces & started targeting minorities.
  • Most of its previous attacks were aimed at Shia minority. By attacking Sikhs & Hindus, IS has re-emphasized its worldview & renewed its threat to any attempt to make peace in Afghanistan.
  • If IS is allowed to grow, Afghanistan’s descent into total chaos will only be a matter of time.

US- Indo Pacific Command (INDOPACOM)

US has renamed its oldest & largest stragically imp. military command US Pacific Command (PACOM) to Indo-Pacific Command (INDOPACOM).

Decision was taken in recognition of growing importance of Indian Ocean in US strategic thinking.

Trump administration has renamed Asia Pacific as Indo-Pacific & identified India as one bookend of region.

Key Facts

  • US Pacific Command has abt 375,000 civilian & military personnel assigned to its area of responsibility, which includes India.
  • INDOPACOM will extend its reach from Pacific Ocean to Indian Ocean Region.
  • INDOPACOM will help US to stand by its Pacific & Indian Ocean allies & partners & support their sovereign decisions for maintaining regional stability & in turn critical to global peace.
  • Renaming recognizes India’s increasing military relevance for US for countering Chinese economic & military pressure in region.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 20, 2019

International Relations/Organizations

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.