Expected Questions in International Organizations 2019 – (Part 3) (Set-2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Operation Hodeidah

  • Arab coalition which is fighting to secure strategic Yemeni port of Hodeidah is planning to reach out to India for its support.
  • Operation at Hodeidah - main target is to fight terrorism that is a common enemy of both India & UAE.
  • Arab coalition expects that operation will force Houthi rebels in Yemen to sit down for negotiated settlement of conflict that has caused a major humanitarian disaster in Yemen.
  • In Yemen - Houthis began as theological movement preaching peace, now find themselves at centre of international conflict.
  • Houthis are Shia rebels.
  • Yemen’s port of Hodeidah was under control of Houthi rebels who are believed to be drawing support from Iran.
  • Arab coalition, led by Saudi Arabia & UAE, claims that Iranian military has used port to supply Houthis w/weapons & ammunition.
  • Houthis are being alleged of supporting pirates in western Indian Ocean region.

US “zero-tolerance” policy on illegal immigration

Several people from South Asia, including many from India, are detained by U. S. immigration authorities at federal prison in Oregon for illegally entering country.

Trump administration’s “zero-tolerance” policy on illegal immigration has resulted in sweeping measures like separation of children from their families.

India US areas of concerns

  • US not happy w/India’s growing engagement w/U. S. , Russia & China in equal measure. India not admitting Quadrilateral grouping or less attention given by India towards Quad.
  • India’s closer engagement w/Chinese President & relationship reset w/China after Wuhan meeting. India’s plans to acquire the Russian S-400 missile system
  • India’s acceptance of military exercises w/countries of Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO).
  • Several issues in WTO; Trade protectionism; Disputes on new American steel & aluminium tariffs
  • Proposed cuts in H1B professional visas & cancellation of H4 spouse visas
  • Disputes on Indian price reductions on medical devices
  • Harley-Davidson motorcycles row - US calling for India to scrap its 75 - 100 % tariffs

Bilateral ties b/w India and Italy

India & Italy have agreed to boost cooperation in counter-terrorism & cybersecurity during meeting of External Affairs Minister (EAM) w/top Italian leadership.

Key-highlights of Visit

  • She exchanged views on regional & global issues of mutual interest w/Italian counterpart. Both sides agreed to mutually identify new areas of cooperation to boost trade & investment linkages.
  • Both leaders shared concerns relating to counter-terrorism and cybersecurity & agreed to continue cooperation in this area.
  • Indian EAM called on Italian PM, who assumed charge early this month & their discussion focused on forging bilateral cooperation across sectors & steps to revitalize bilateral relationship.
  • She conveyed need for India & Italy to continue to work together & coordinate positions in multilateral forums.

Other Important Events

  • 70th Anniversary: 2018 marks 70th year of establishment of diplomatic relations b/w India & Italy.
  • JCEC Meet: To extend collaboration in areas of mutual benefit, Ministries agreed to hold next meeting of Joint Commission for Economic Cooperation (JCEC) in India later this year.
  • Tech Summit: Both countries welcomed Italy’s participation as partner country at Tech Summit in India in November 2018, which would boost cooperation in technology & innovation.

Significance of SCO for India

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit in Qingdao, China was 1st SCO summit attended by India as a full-fledged member.

SCO grew out of Shanghai 5 grouping of Russia, China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan & Kyrgyzstan — which was set up in 1996 to resolve boundary disputes b/w China & each of 4 other members.

It admitted India & Pakistan as full members in 2017.

Significance for India

  • SCO has about half world’s population & a quarter of its GDP. Its boundary extends southwards to Indian Ocean.
  • India has imp. economic & security interests in these countries.
  • W/India having complicated ties w/neighbours, it makes sense to strengthen ties w/its neighbours’ neighbours.
  • Expanding opportunities for India in Central Asia: India’s relations w/Central Asian countries are constrained by lack of overland access thru Pakistan & Afghanistan/Iran, because of political & security reasons. SCO should help in this regard.
  • Russian & Chinese officials suggested that harmonious cooperation in SCO may pave way for India-Pakistan rapprochement.

Challenging areas:

  • SCO is expected to nudge both countries to cooperate in sensitive areas. Example is Regional Anti-Terrorist Structure (RATS) of SCO, which coordinates cooperation for security & stability, thru intelligence-sharing on criminal & terrorist activities. India & Pakistan have to find ways of cooperating in RATS.
  • Defence cooperation is another tricky area: enhanced linkages b/w armed forces is SCO objective. India has agreed to participate in SCO’s counter-terrorism military exercises in Russia later this year, when Indian & Pakistani troops will operate together.
  • Reconciling Indian & Pakistani perspectives in SCO’s initiatives on Afghanistan would be yet another challenge.
  • Challenge for India — besides that of security & defence cooperation w/Pakistan — may come from increasing Chinese dominance of SCO.
  • Essence of a functioning multilateral framework is focusing on shared objectives & underplaying divergences.

India- Seychelles: Assumption Island naval base project stalled

  • Seychelles National Assembly will not ratify India’s plans to build a naval base in western Indian Ocean region.
  • India had proposed to build a naval base on strategically located Assumption island.
  • Assumption Island is a small island in Outer Islands of Seychelles north of Madagascar.
  • Seychelles believe allowing Indian Naval base would infringe on country’s sovereignty.

Coast guard facility

  • Seychelles has indicated that instead of allowing India to run base, it would like to develop a coast guard facility at Assumption.
  • Indian project was to include a facility for Indian ships & airstrip that would allow New Delhi to guard energy lanes vital to India’s economy.

India- Seychelles: Assumption Island project

  • India has announced grant of $100 million Line of Credit to Seychelles for purchase of defence hardware. (especially to build its maritime capacity)
  • Cooperation in carrying out hydrographical studies of maritime region
  • Exchange of necessary oceanic maps b/w 2 sides
  • India gifted a Dornier aircraft to Seychelles.

Background:

  • Diplomatic ties were established w/Seychelles after its independence in 1976
  • Seychelles is small island country in Indian Ocean comprising group of 115 small island. It has a population of 87,000
  • Seychelles is multi-ethnic & multi-lingual society comprising of people of French, British, Indian, Iranian & Chinese descent.
  • Country’s strategic importance traces back to Napoleonic era when Britain gained control over this island which straddled trade route to East Indies.

Defence Relation

  • Seychelles has high strategic importance due to its proximity to global shipping & commerce lanes. It serves as a vital base to fight sea-terrorism & piracy.
  • In 1986, India had executed ‘Operation Flowers are Blooming’ in Seychelles, when on request by then-President, PM instructed then Indian Chief of Naval Staff to dispatch frigate INS Vindhyagiri to avert a coup.
  • In 2009, on request of Seychelles, India dispatched naval ships to patrol its exclusive economic zone & guard it against piracy. India has helped Seychelles’ armed forces in capacity building.
  • In 2014, Indian Naval Ship INS Tarasa was gifted to Seychelles to help it improve its maritime security.
  • India gifted a Dornier aircraft to Seychelles.

Free Trade Agreements: An analysis

  • In FTA, 2 or more countries agree to lower import tariffs & other trade barriers on each other’s products.
  • Good for them at one level but bad for overall trade, because of 2 effects that take place as result.
  • Economists term these trade diversion and trade creation.
  • Trade diversion favours less efficient producers while trade creation stresses local producers.

Effects distort world trade

  • Since FTAs allow trade at 0 import duty on most products & world over 280-plus FTAs are operational, it is widely believed that most world trade happens thru FTA route.
  • Data check shows that share of most countries’ trade w/their FTA partners is 20 - 40 % of their total global trade. But even most of this trade takes place outside of FTA.
  • Global & bilateral export-import data show that much of world trade takes place outside FTAs.

Conclusion:

  • Above analysis shows that FTAs had potential to damage multilateral trading system & world trade, they could not.
  • Reason: Most (about 83 - 85%) world trade takes place outside FTAs. Only 15 - 17 % of trade is on preferential terms.
  • As US action of increasing tariffs & China’s response shows tariffs are still central means of regulating imports. These should be reduced thru FTAs only when economic benefits can be clearly demonstrated.

Shangri-La dialogue and Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) summit

PM is expected to make “major” speech on India’s defence & security outlook at Shangri-La dialogue in Singapore.

PM will fly to Qingdao city in China for SCO summit.

Shangri-La Dialogue (SLD):

  • SLD is “Track One” inter-governmental security forum held annually by independent think tank, International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS).
  • Forum gets its name from Shangri-La Hotel in Singapore where it is held since 2002.
  • Shangri-La dialogue is run by London-based think tank International Institute of Strategic Studies & funded & hosted by Singapore govt.
  • Over years ministers have used Dialogue to propose & advance initiatives on imp. security issues.

Main objective is military cooperation b/w members. It works towards intelligence-sharing, counter-terrorism operations in Central Asia. It is primarily centred on its member nations’ Central Asian security-related concerns, often describing main threats it confronts as being terrorism, separatism and extremism.

About SCO:

  • China will host 2018 SCO Summit.
  • SCO is Eurasian political, economic & security organisation.
  • Creation of SCO was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China.
  • SCO Members: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, India & Pakistan
  • India & Pakistan joined SCO as full members on 9 June 2017 at a summit in Astana, Kazakhstan.
  • Afghanistan, Belarus, Iran & Mongolia have observer status at present.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 20, 2019

International Relations/Organizations

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