Expected Questions in International Organizations 2019 – (Part 3) (Set-3) (Download PDF)


Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Palestine to join the Chemical Weapons Convention

  • Palestinians have joined global convention to halt spread of toxic arms, Organisation for Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW).
  • Palestine will become 193rd state to join CWC
  • Palestinians are campaigning for creation of their own state of Palestine & have stepped up campaign in recent years to win recognition from international organisations.
  • Israel is vehemently opposed to these attempts & has pursued intense diplomatic efforts to stop them.
  • In 2012, UN upgraded Palestinians to a non-member observer state.
  • Interpol, International Criminal Court, UNESCO, & OPCW all refer to Palestinian territories as a state.

About OPCW & CWC:

  • OPCW is intergovernmental organisation & implementing body for Chemical Weapons Convention, which entered into force on 29 April 1997.
  • OPCW has its seat in Hague, Netherlands & oversees global endeavour for permanent & verifiable elimination of chemical weapons.
  • Only 4 countries, including Israel, have yet to sign up to CWC, which aims to eliminate entire category of weapons of mass destruction.
  • CWC prohibits development, production, acquisition & stockpiling of chemical weapons by its member states.

Turkey Crisis and its impact

Trade wars b/w Turkey & USA has lead to a currency crisis for Turkish Lira.

Crisis in Turkey

  • US has doubled steel & aluminium tariffs on Turkey, as US is pushing for release of Pastor Andrew Brunson, who was being held by Turkey on terrorism charges.
  • Turkey retaliated by increasing import taxes on US goods, such as automobiles by 120%, alcohol by 140% & tariffs on coal, cosmetics & rice.
  • Turkish currency, lira has fell steep (depreciating around 80 % against US dollar so far in 2018) – This has rattled investors globally, w/currencies of other emerging markets too coming under pressure.
  • High debt - Turkey’s economy is grappling w/high levels of debt in pvt. sector & significant foreign funding in banking system.


  • Indian markets along w/some Asian markets are some volatility due to Lira crisis.
  • This is typical as foreign investors will fear higher risk assets in emerging markets & will dump local currency for US Dollars.
  • Foreign funds that freely flowed into emerging markets may dry up.
  • India is less vulnerable relative to other emerging markets (EMs) in terms of external debt & current account deficit. But if crisis continues, it could hurt India.
  • India’s exports would slow down if global situation deteriorates.

Exercise Peace Mission 2018

  • Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Peace Mission 2018 Exercise was held in Chebarkul, Russia.
  • Military contingents of all 8 SCO member nations (China, Russia, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, India & Pakistan) participated in this Exercise.
  • Peace Mission Exercise focused on anti-terror operations.
  • This was 5th edition of SCO Peace Mission Exercise.
  • India participated for 1st time.
  • Russian Army has major participation of 1700 personnel followed by China w/700 & India w/200 personnel. Pakistan contingent comprised of 110 members.
  • SCO Peace Mission Exercise takes place every 2 years.
  • Previous editions of this exercise were mainly limited to Central Asian nations. Due to entry of India & Pakistan (in June 2017), SCO’s counter-terrorism mission is expanded to South Asia.

India-UK Concerns: Khalistan movement

  • Britain’s Green Party supports controversial pro-Khalistan rally due to take place in London
  • Rally is in support of a referendum for independent Sikh homeland.
  • This has heightened tensions b/w India & U. K. , after Britain said it wouldn’t ban demonstration, despite concerns raised by India & issuance of demarche to take action.
  • India had earlier raised concerns about flag-tearing during such pro-Khalistan rally & received apology from British govt.
  • Sikh Federation U. K. has accused Indian authorities of “overreacting” to Sikh diaspora & described “re-establishment of a Sikh homeland” as “inevitable”.
  • After independence of India, demand of separate state by Sikhs led to formation Punjab.
  • There are many unresolved issues pertaining to Chandigarh as state capital, sharing of river waters etc. It is further aggravated when terrorists demanded for separate ‘Khalistan’.
  • Khalistan issue resulted in Operation Blue Star in Amritsar, followed by assassination of PM, series of political murders & killing of thousands of Sikhs & other people in riots & terrorism related violence.

India and Africa

PM returned from tour of Rwanda, Uganda & South Africa that included BRICS Summit in South Africa & outlining of 10 guiding principles for India’s engagement in Africa.

10 guiding principles for India’s engagement in Africa

  • Africa will be at top of India’s priorities.
  • India’s development partnership will be guided by Africa’s priorities.
  • India will keep her markets open & make it easier & more attractive to trade.
  • India’s experience w/digital revolution to support Africa’s development.
  • Agriculture; Africa has 60 % of world’s arable land but only 10 % of global output.
  • India Africa partnership will address the challenges of climate change.
  • Cooperation in combating terrorism & extremism; keeping our cyberspace safe & secure & supporting UN in advancing & keeping peace.
  • Work w/African nations to keep oceans open & free for benefit of all.
  • Make Africa nursery for aspirations of Africa’s youth.
  • Work together for just, representative & democratic global order that has voice & role for 1/3rd of humanity that lives in Africa & India.

About India’s refocused Africa strategy:

  • Refocused Africa strategy builds on India’s soft power in historical, trade & cultural links w/western edge of Indo-Pacific.
  • India aims to secure her foothold on continent, secure access to resources, build markets for Indian goods & services & support India’s global ambitions.
  • New strategy is focused on building alliances & differentiating India from China as development partner, at time when several countries in Indo-Pacific have fallen into debt trap w/China.
  • India has tried to differentiate itself by engaging w/its diaspora & pvt. sector links to build development partnerships, where India has a comparative advantage in English-language training & research.
  • India has initiated series of India-Africa forums & is working w/Japan on Asia Africa Growth Corridor.
  • India has committed about 150 credit lines worth $10 billion as development fund w/lower disbursement rates than China.

India joins Ashgabat agreement: Significance

India has joined Ashgabat Agreement - envisages facilitation of transit & transportation of goods b/w Central Asia & Persian Gulf to significantly boost up trade & investment.

It was informed by Turkmenistan, as depository state of Agreement that all its 4 founding members have consented to accession of India.

Ashgabat Agreement

  • Aims at establishment of International Transport & Transit Corridor b/w Iran, Oman, Turkmenistan & Uzbekistan. Named after capital of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat.
  • It establishes international transport & transit corridor b/w Central Asia & Persian Gulf countries. Pakistan is its member since October 2016.

Significance of accession to Agreement

  • It will enable India to utilise this existing transport & transit corridor to facilitate trade & commercial interaction & ties w/Central Asia & Eurasian region.
  • It will synchronise India’s efforts to implement International North South Transport Corridor (INSTC) for enhanced connectivity.
  • It will provide India opportunity for reorientation of freight traffic from traditional sea route to land transcontinental routes.

India and China: “Wuhan spirit”

  • After Wuhan summit, mutual confidence b/w China & India was promoted.
  • Experts & academicians feel – “China & India can cooperate under two-plus-one formula” to bring development in countries such as Maldives, Afghanistan & Nepal.
  • 2 + 1 mechanism (Wuhan Spirit) was proposed by China at Wuhan, where New Delhi & Beijing would coordinate their responses while engaging 3rd country in South Asia.
  • Mechanism can enhance mutual trust b/w China & India & may prevent other South Asian countries from being caught in between.

India, Russia sign S-400 missile deal

India has concluded price negotiations w/Russia for deal to procure S-400 Triumf air defence missile systems for Indian Air Force (IAF).

Key Facts

  • Deal will be announced before annual summit b/w PM & Russian President. Both countries are now trying to find way out to evade provisions of CAATSA (Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act), a stringent US law that seeks to punish countries & entities engaged in transactions w/defence or intelligence establishment of Russia.

S-400 Triumf Air Defence System

  • It is long-range air defence missile system. It is referred to as SA-21 Growler by NATO. It is upgraded version of S-300 defence system & is manufactured by Almaz-Antey.
  • It is capable of firing 3 types of missiles, creating layered defence & engaging 36 targets.
  • It has capability to destroy incoming all airborne targets at ranges of up to 400 km.

India-Italy ties: India-Italy Technology Summit 2018

  • PM of Italy to visit India. He will participate in 24th edition of DST-CII India-Italy Technology Summit 2018.
  • Technology Summit is organized by Department of Science & Technology (DST).
  • This edition of Summit will focus on 7 areas—Clean tech, Renewable, ICT, Healthcare, Aerospace, Education & Cultural Heritage.
  • Objective of Summit is to facilitate technology transfers, joint ventures, Research & Development & market access b/w industry & research institutions in India & Italy.
  • Visit will be part of ongoing celebrations to commemorate 70th anniversary of establishment of diplomatic relations b/w India & Italy.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 20, 2019

International Relations/Organizations

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