Expected Questions in Polity & Governance 2019 - IAS/NET (Part 2) (Set-2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

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Expected Questions on Governance and Polity 2019 Set 2 (UPSC CSE/SSC/IBPS)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Internal Security 2019 for IAS/SSC/Bank PO/NDA/CDS

Article 35A

Article 35A provides legislature of J&K w/freedom to decide who all are ‘permanent residents’ of State & confer on them special rights & privileges in public sector jobs, acquisition of property in State, scholarships & other public aid & welfare. Provision mandates that no act of legislature coming under it can be challenged for violating Constitution or any other law of land.

Controversy w/respect to article

  • Article 35A was incorporated into Constitution in 1954 on advice of the Jawaharlal Nehru Cabinet. Presidential Order was issued under Article 370 (1) (d) of Constitution. This provision allows President to make certain “exceptions & modifications” to Constitution for benefit of ‘State subjects’ of J&K.
  • Petitioners are alleging that Article 35A was a violation of fundamental right of equality under Article 14.
  • Constitutionality of article is questioned as Parliament was not consulted when President incorporated Article 35A into Indian Constitution thru Presidential Order issued under Article 370. Petitioner alleges that Article 35A is against “very spirit of oneness of India” as it creates “class within a class of Indian citizens. ”
  • Another petitioner Charu Wali Khan, has challenged Article 35A for protecting certain provisions of J&K Constitution which restricts basic right to property if a native woman marries a man not holding Permanent Resident Certificate.

Competitive populism

Competitive populism is euphemism for providing general population or segment of population w/freebies or huge subsidies to achieve electoral success.

Vice-President expressed his displeasure over few schemes announced by current govt.

Competitive populism among political parties & offers of loan waivers & free power in run-up to elections are just temporary solutions that do not address need for structural changes to sustainably develop incomes in country.

Populist measures may have short-term political gains, but lead to long-term economic problems as they are “unproductive, “.

Examples of Competitive Populism

  • Ahead of poll, T. N. govt. has dished out ₹2,000 to every BPL family & this post budget announcement to cost State ₹1,200 cr.
  • Last month, T. N. govt. distributed ₹1,000 as Pongal gift to most ration card-holders, resulting in outgo of around ₹1,900 cr.

Institutions of Eminence

UGC has deferred decision on which institutions should be granted prestigious Institutes of Eminence tag as expert committee has recommended more names than govt. scheme allowed for.

Institutions of Eminence scheme:

  • Scheme under HRD ministry aims to project Indian institutes to global recognition.
  • Selected institutes will enjoy complete academic & administrative autonomy.
  • Govt. will run 10 of these & they will receive special funding.
  • Selection shall be made thru challenge method mode by Empowered Expert Committee constituted for purpose.
  • Eligibility: Only higher education institutions currently placed in top 500 of global rankings or top 50 of National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) are eligible to apply for eminence tag.
  • Private Institutions of Eminence can come up as greenfield ventures provided sponsoring organisation submits a convincing perspective plan for 15 years.

DAMaN initiative: Model for malaria control

As per WHO’s World Malaria Report of 2018, India is only country among 11 highest burden countries that saw substantial progress in reducing disease burden: it saw 24 % decrease in 2017 compared to 2016.

India’s efforts in this regard:

  • India’s progress in fighting malaria is outcome of concerted efforts to ensure that its malaria programme is country-owned & country-led, even as it is in alignment w/globally accepted strategies.
  • At East Asia Summit in 2015, India pledged to eliminate disease by 2030. Following this public declaration, India launched 5-year National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination. This marked a shift in focus from malaria “control” to “elimination”. Plan provides a roadmap to achieve target of ending malaria in 571 districts out of India’s 678 districts by 2022.

Durgama Anchalare Malaria Nirakaran (DAMaN) initiative:

  • Initiative aims to deliver services to most inaccessible & hardest hit people of State. Initiative has in-built innovative strategies to combat asymptomatic malaria.
  • Programme is jointly implemented by Indian Council of Medical Research-National Institute of Malaria Research (ICMR-NIMR), National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP), Odisha & Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).

Universal Basic Income

Ruling party of Sikkim, Sikkim Democratic Front (SDF) has assured implementation of universal basic income in Sikkim by 2022. Sikkim would become 1st state in country to implement Universal Basic Income (UBI).

Universal Basic Income (UBI)

UBI refers to a programme wherein people are provided w/fixed amount of money irrespective of their income, resources or employment status.

Benefits of UBI

  • 2017 Economic Survey had proposed UBI as conceptually appealing idea which could be possible alternative to social welfare programmes targeted at reducing poverty.
  • Advocates of UBI praise concept as futuristic which will allow people to look into future w/o worrying too much about income to sustain themselves.
  • Pilot programmes for UBI is successfully implemented in Gujarat, MP & tribal belts w/fairly large samples.

Cabinet approves 3 new AIIMS in J&K, Gujarat

Cabinet approved setting up of 3 new AIIMS institutions. 3 new institutions would come up at Vijaynagar at Samba of Jammu, Awantipora in Pulwama of Kashmir & Rajkot in Gujarat under Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana.

2 new AIIMS for J&K were announced by PM under Prime Minister’s Development Package & AIIMS in Rajkot, Gujarat was announced by Finance Minister.

Benefits of New AIIMS institutions

  • Each new AIIMS will add 100 UG (MBBS) seats & 60 BSc (nursing) seats & new AIIMS will have 15 - 20 super speciality departments.
  • This wills serve dual purpose of providing super speciality healthcare to population closer to their homes & help in creating a large pool of doctors & other health workers in these regions to strengthen primary & secondary level institutions & facilities being created under National Health Mission (NHM).

All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS)

  • AIIMS are autonomous institutions set up under act of parliament, AIIMS act 1956. They are declared as Institutes of National Importance.
  • Educational principles & practices being adopted at AIIMS are those which are best suited to needs of nation.

Non-communicable diseases top killers: WHO

NCDs — mainly cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes & cancer — continue to be top killers in South-East Asia Region, claiming 8.5 million lives each year, according to WHO.

Containing NCDs is listed by WHO as its health goal for this year along w/reducing mortality related to air pollution & climate change, global influenza pandemic etc.

Key observations:

  • NCDs like diabetes, cancer & heart disease are responsible for over 70 % of all deaths worldwide, or 41 million people. These include 15 million people dying prematurely, aged b/w 30 & 69.
  • 1/3rd of these deaths are premature & occur before age of 70, affecting economically productive individuals.
  • 4 ‘major’ NCDs are caused, to large extent, by 4 modifiable behavioural risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diet, insufficient physical activity & harmful use of alcohol.
  • NCDs disproportionately affect poor, impoverish families & place a growing burden on health care systems.

Kyasanoor Forest Disease (KFD) or Monkey Fever

Karnataka is reeling under outbreak of monkey fever or Kyasanur forest disease (KFD).

About Disease:

  • KFD is caused by Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV). Virus was identified in 1957 when it was isolated from a sick monkey from Kyasanur Forest. Since then, b/w 400 - 500 humans cases per year are reported.
  • Hard ticks (Hemaphysalis spinigera) are reservoir of KFD virus.
  • Rodents, shrews & monkeys are common hosts for KFDV after being bitten by infected tick. KFDV can cause epizootics w/high fatality in primates.

Transmission:

  • Transmission to humans may occur after a tick bite or contact w/infected animal, most importantly a sick or recently dead monkey.
  • Disease transmitted thru monkeys. Large animals such as goats, cows & sheep may become infected w/KFD but play a limited role in transmission of disease.
  • These animals provide blood meals for ticks.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 31, 2019

Policy/Governance

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