Expected Questions in Polity & Governance 2019 – IAS/NET (Part 4) (Set-2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Significance of Montagu-Chelmsford reforms

July month marks 100th year of publication of ‘Report on Indian constitutional reforms’, commonly known as Montagu-Chelmsford Report (MCR). Edwin Montagu, then Secretary of State for India, had advocated for increased participation of Indians in British Indian administration.

About Montagu-Chelmsford Report

Landmark report in constitutional development which led to enactment of GoI Act. 1919.

Main Features of Act, 1919: -

  • Declaration — promised for responsible GoI.
  • Diarchy in Provinces — Double Rule. It’s objects was to train natives in act of Self Govt.
  • CentraI Govt. — It was responsible to British parliament thru Secretary of State. It has bicameral legislative.
  • Structure of Govt. to remain unitary — Central Legislative had power to legislative on any matter. GoI remained unitary & centralized govt. w/Governor General-in-Council as key stone of constitution.

Ujjwala Revolution

PMUY is scheme of Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas for providing LPG connections to women from Below Poverty Line (BPL) households.

About PMUY

  • 5 cr. LPG connections are to be provided to BPL households. Identification of eligible BPL families will be made in consultation w/State Govt. & UTs.
  • PMUY aims to safeguard health of women & children by providing them w/clean cooking fuel – LPG, so that they don’t have to compromise their health in smoky kitchens or wander in unsafe areas collecting firewood.
  • Ambitious scheme laid down condition - that LPG connections will be issued in name of women of households.
  • Encouraged by rapid release of connections, central govt. revised target & scope of scheme to 8 cr. connections by March 2020.
  • Govt. bears connection cost of ₹1,600 per connection & each household pays abt ₹1,500 for stove & 1st LPG cylinder. Centre to raise allocation for project to ₹4,800 cr.

World Bank to fund Atal Bhujal Yojana

World Bank & Indian Govt. join hands to address concerns about depleting groundwater reserves in India.

World Bank nod for ₹6,000 cr. scheme called Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY).

About Atal Bhujal Yojana (ABHY)

  • Central Sector Scheme
  • To be implemented over 5 years from 2018 - 19 to 2022 - 23
  • Aims to improve ground water mgmt. in priority areas in country thru community participation
  • Priority areas identified under scheme fall in 7 States – Gujarat, Haryana, Karnataka, MP, Maharashtra, Rajasthan & UP
  • Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA) is regulating ground water development in 23 States/UTs.
  • Water being a State subject, steps for augmentation, conservation & efficient mgmt. of water resources to ensure sustainability & availability are primarily undertaken by respective State Govt.

Strengthening Indian healthcare with Branded Generic Drugs

  • Till 2001, drugs available to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) - common cancer of white blood cells weren’t satisfactory. Only treatment which provided long-term respite was bone marrow transplant. This was expensive procedure & complex largely.
  • Around 2003, Glivec (scientific name - Imatinib) came into market & revolutionised treatment of disease. One pill a day could control leukemia. Due to its cost, drug was beyond reach of many.
  • Drug went off-patent, it was manufactured by dozens of Indian pharmaceutical companies. Pack of 10 costs around Rs. 3,000.

Branded generics:

  • Branded generics are helping to bring down cost, apart from increasing accessibility w/o compromising on quality. It is solution for economy like ours, which doesn’t follow strict regulations on quality.

The Criminal Law (Amendment) Ordinance, 2018

Parliament has passed Criminal Law (Amendment) Bill, 2018 prescribing death penalty to those convicted of raping girls below age of 12 years & making law against such sexual offences more stringent.

Key Provisions of Bill

  • Bill amends Indian Penal Code (IPC), Criminal Procedure Code, POCSO Act & Indian Evidence Act. It provides for stringent punishment of jail term of min. 20 years or life imprisonment or death for rape of girl less than 12 years.
  • It provides punishment w/imprisonment for rest of life or death sentence in case of gang rape of girl below 12 years.
  • It increases min. punishment from 10 years to 20 years for crime of rape of girl under 16 years, which can be extended to imprisonment for rest of life.
  • It increases min. punishment for rape of women from rigorous imprisonment of 7 years to 10 years, which can be extended to life imprisonment.
  • It provides for speedy investigation & trial of cases involving above offences, which must be completed in 2 months.
  • It proposes 6 months’ time limit for disposal of appeals in rape cases. It provides dedicated manpower for investigation of rape cases in time bound manner.

Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction

  • Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is multinational treaty that seeks to protect children wrongfully removed by one of parents from custody of other parent.
  • There is immense pressure from U. S. on govt. to sign treaty. Indian govt. has long held view that decision could lead to harassment of women escaping marital discord or domestic violence.
  • In 2016, govt. had decided not to be a signatory to treaty.
  • Justice Rajesh Bindal Committee was set up in 2017 to suggest model legislation in regard to issue of inter-country parental child abduction.
  • Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction is multilateral treaty developed by Hague Conference on Private International Law (HCCH).
  • Convention was drafted to ensure prompt return of children who are abducted from their country of habitual residence or wrongfully retained in contracting state not their country of habitual residence.
  • Convention applies to children under age of 16.
  • Contracting countries must establish a central authority to trace unlawfully removed children & secure their return to country of habitual residence, irrespective of country’s own laws on issue.

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana (PMMVY)

  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. Maternity Benefit Programme would be implemented in all districts in accordance w/provision of National Food Security Act, 2013.
  • It would provide grants-in-aid to State Govt. / UT Administrations (UTs) in dedicated Escrow account for purpose of DBT to beneficiaries.
  • PMMVY is implemented using platform of Anganwadi Services scheme of Umbrella ICDS under Ministry of Women & Child Development.
  • PMMVY shall be implemented thru centrally deployed Web Based MIS Software application & focal point of implementation would be Anganwadi Centre (AWC) & ASHA/ANM workers. Scheme is being implemented on a 60: 40 cost-sharing basis w/State govt.
  • Under scheme, pregnant women & lactating mothers are offered cash incentive of ₹6,000 on birth of their 1st child as partial compensation for wage loss, to reduce maternal mortality & malnutrition levels among children.
  • Under scheme monetary benefits are extended to all pregnant women & lactating mothers, except those in govt. service, for safe delivery of 1st child

- Published/Last Modified on: May 31, 2019

Policy/Governance

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.