Expected Questions in Polity & Governance 2019-IAS/Net (Part 3) (Set-1) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

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Expected Questions on Governance and Polity 2019 Set 3 (UPSC CSE/SSC/IBPS)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Internal Security 2019 for IAS/SSC/Bank PO/NDA/CDS

3 northeastern States emerge as new HIV hotspots

  • Meghalaya, Mizoram & Tripura have emerge as new hotspots for HIV.
  • Incidences of HIV cases are rising in north eastern states due to high-risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) & unsafe sexual practices.
  • 4 sites in Mizoram & 1 in Tripura have higher prevalence of HIV in IDUs. In rest of India HIV prevalence in IDUs is 6.3%, in 3 places at Aizwal, Champhai & Kolasib, it is 37.44%, 33.06% & 38.14%, respectively.
  • National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO) conducted a biennial study, HIV Sentinel Surveillance (HSS) according to which HIV prevalence is highest in Mizoram (1.19%), Nagaland (0.82%), Meghalaya (0.73%), Tripura (0.56%) & Manipur (0.47%).
  • Higher HIV prevalence was recorded among pregnant women visiting ante-natal clinics (ANC) in NE states as against places across India.
  • 6 centres in Mizoram, 2 in Meghalaya & 1 in Tripura recorded HIV prevalence of more than 1%, compared w/HIV prevalence of 0.28 % among pregnant women visiting ANCs in other places in India.
  • In case of sex workers, prevalence of HIV was as high as 24.68 % in Aizwal dist. compared w/1.6 % for other sites in country.

123rd Constitutional Amendment Bill

Constitutional amendment bill seeks to grant National Commission on Backward Classes (NCBC) constitutional status at par w/National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) & National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCSTs).

Key Features of Bill

Role of NCSC: Bill removes power of NCSC to examine matters related to backward classes. Under Constitution NCSC has power to look into complaints & welfare measures w/regard to SCs, OBCs & Anglo-Indians.

Constitutional status to NCBC: Bill seeks to make NCBC Constitutional body by inserting new article 338B in constitution composition, mandate, functions & various officers of NCBC. Article 338B will give NCBC authority to examine complaints & welfare measures regarding socially & educationally backward classes.

Backward classes: Bill inserts article 342-A to empower President to specify socially & educationally backward classes in various states & UTs.

Composition and service conditions: Bill mentions that NCBC will comprise of 5 members appointed by President. Their tenure & conditions of service will be decided by President thru rules.

Powers of a civil court: Bill gives NCBC powers of civil court while investigating or inquiring into any complaints. These powers will include summoning people & examining them on oath, production of any document or public record & receiving evidence.

Bringing the MOTTAINAI concept of Japan to India

Concept of MOTTAINAI

Japanese word that literally means “wasteful”.

It is used to express dismay at wasteful actions. It conveys feeling of veneration that Japanese people have towards environment & their firm resolve to protect it.

Culture of MOTTAINAI in Japan

  • In Japan, children are taught to eat every last grain of rice in their bowl, because even single grain is precious to be wasted, given energy & resources invested in producing it.
  • Japanese people perceive nature to be sacred. Ancient Japanese belief of Shintoism says that God is everywhere in nature, including trees, mountains & rice fields.
  • This sense of reverence towards nature is shared by Indian people, since environment is deeply embedded into scriptures of Hinduism & Buddhism.
  • Cherishing “mottainai” spirit, Japan has cultivated culture that follows 3Rs: reduce (garbage), reuse & recycle.

#Self4Society app to rope in volunteers

App developed by MyGov is launched to help coordinate volunteer work undertaken by professionals.

About #Self4Society App:

  • Platform will help to create better synergies among so many CSR & other initiatives & lead to a much better outcome of efforts of professionals.
  • Companies have observed that a spirit of service & volunteering improves employee satisfaction & reduces employee attrition.
  • App will have incentives, gamification & intra- and inter-company competitions & social networking.
  • At 1st, this will be aimed at IT companies, w/more joining in when it takes off.
  • Volunteer time for govt. ‘s flagship programmes like Swachh Bharat is expected to increase.

SATAT initiative

Initiative aimed at providing a Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) as a developmental effort that would benefit both vehicle users & farmers & entrepreneurs.

Joint initiative of IndianOil, BPCL & HPCL to turn waste into green energy.

Petroleum Ministry w/PSU Oil Marketing Companies inviting Expression of Interest (EoI) from potential entrepreneurs to set up Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG) production plants & make available CBG in market for use in automotive fuels.

Benefits of Compressed Bio-Gas (CBG)

  1. Responsible waste mgmt. , reduction in carbon emissions & pollution
  2. Additional revenue source for farmers
  3. Boost to entrepreneurship, rural economy & employment
  4. Support to national commitments in achieving climate change goals
  5. Reduction in import of natural gas & crude oil
  6. Buffer against crude oil/gas price fluctuations
  • GoI had launched GOBAR-DHAN (Galvanising Organic BioAgro Resources) scheme to convert cattle dung & solid waste in farms to CBG & compost.

Global Hunger Index 2018

2018 global hunger index is prepared by Welthungerhilfe together w/Concern Worldwide.

Index is based on 4 parameters:

  • Undernourished population (1/3rd weight)
  • Child wasting (1/6th weight)
  • Child stunting (1/6th weight)
  • Infant mortality rate (1/3rd weight)

Findings of 2018 report

  • India is ranked at 103rd position among 119 countries. India is among 45 countries that have “serious levels of hunger. India is ranked below many neighbouring countries, including China (25th spot), Nepal (72), Myanmar (68), Sri Lanka (67) & Bangladesh (86). GHI scores for South Asia & Africa south of Sahara reflect serious levels of hunger.
  • Around 124 million people suffer acute hunger in world which is striking increase from 80 million 2 years ago.
  • About 151 million children are stunted & 51 million children are wasted across globe.

Reforms to sexual harassment law & Justice J. S. Verma Committee recommendations

During 2013, Justice J. S. Verma Committee had recommended setting up of employment tribunal instead of internal complaints committee (ICC) in sweeping changes to Sexual Harassment at Workplace Bill.

Verma committee report noted that internal complaints committee as laid down under then proposed law would be “counter-productive” as dealing w/such complaints in-house could discourage women from filing complaints.

Justice J. S. Verma Committee recommendations:

  • Proposed forming employment tribunal to receive & adjudicate all complaints. Proposed that tribunal should not function as a civil court but may choose its own procedure to deal w/each complaint.
  • Any “unwelcome behaviour” should be seen from subjective perception of complainant, thus broadening scope of definition of sexual harassment.
  • Panel made several suggestions to encourage women to come forward & file complaints. It opposed penalising women for false complaints & called it “abusive provision intended to nullify objective of law”.
  • Time-limit of 3 months to file complaint should be done away w/ & complainant should not be transferred w/o her consent.

IIT-Bombay tops in QS ranking

QS Asia University Ranking is annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).

Universities are assessed based on academic reputation, employer reputation, student-faculty ratio, international faculty & students, staff w/PhD, papers per faculty & citations per paper, among other parameters.

India & QS Asia rankings

  • Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (IIT-Bombay) has topped Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) Asia University Rankings from India followed by IIT Delhi & IIT Madras.
  • 8 Indian universities have figured among top 100 in list of Asia’s top 50 universities.
  • IIT-Bombay, IIT-Delhi, IIT-Madras, IISC Bangalore, IIT-Kharagpur, IIT-Kanpur, Delhi University & IIT-Roorkee are Indian institutions in top 100.
  • There are 75 universities from India in top 500 Asia list No Indian University managed to come under top 10 slot or even Top 20 slot. India is making good progresses w/40 new universities ranked & 14 moving up table.
  • National University of Singapore is ranked as Asia’s best university, followed by University of Hong Kong, Nanyang Technological University, Tsinghua University & Peking University.

NRC in Tripura

SC has issued notice to govt. to update National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Tripura, as is being done in Assam, in order to detect & deport “illegal immigrants” from Bangladesh.

Need:

  • Petition is filed in court contending that “influx” of illegal immigrants into Tripura amounted to ‘external aggression’ under Article 355 of Constitution.
  • Presence of illegal immigrants violates political rights of citizens of Tripura.

Concerns:

  • Tripura was a predominantly tribal State. Now it has become a non-tribal State.
  • Indigenous people who were once majority has now become minority in their own land.
  • Uncontrolled influx of illegal migrants from Bangladesh to Tripura has caused huge demographic changes in Tripura.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 29, 2019

Policy/Governance

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.