Expected Questions in Polity & Governance 2019-IAS/Net (Part 3) (Set-2) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

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Expected Questions on Governance and Polity 2019 Set 3 (UPSC CSE/SSC/IBPS)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Internal Security 2019 for IAS/SSC/Bank PO/NDA/CDS

New Telecom Policy

New policy aims to provide broadband access to every citizen at 50 Mbps speed by 2022. Last telecom policy was announced in 2012.

National Digital Communications Policy 2018

  • Policy envisions attracting $100 billion investments into country’s digital communications sector.
  • Aims at creating at least 40 lakh new jobs in sector in next 4 years & train one million manpower for building New Age Skill.
  • Policy aims at expanding IoT ecosystem to 5 billion connected devices, create globally recognised IPRs in India & create a fund for R&D in new technologies.
  • It pitches for leveraging Artificial Intelligence & Big Data to enhance quality of services offered, spectrum mgmt. & network security while establishing India as global hub for cloud computing.
  • Policy has called for review of levies & fees including licence fee, universal service obligation fund levy & spectrum usage charges, on sector. This is expected to help debt-laden telecom sector.
  • Establish comprehensive data protection regime for digital communications that safeguards privacy, autonomy & choice of individuals.

Smartgram Yojana

President of India laid foundation stone of a Driver’s Training Institute & Secondary School under SMARTGRAM Initiative at village Dhaula, Gurugram (Haryana).

About Yojana

  • Initiative of Rashtrapati Bhavan.
  • Under project selected villages will see new ventures in agriculture, skill development, energy, education, heath, employment generation & entrepreneurship.
  • Model is based on convergence of resources & effort by central govt. , state govt. , dist. administration, panchayati raj institutions, public sector, private sector & enlightened villagers to enhance environment, connectivity & wellbeing of each village.
  • ‘Smart gram’, according to project, would have required basic physical & social infrastructure w/layer of smart information & communication embedded to improve governance & delivery of services, livelihood & economic opportunities.

Punjab plan to eliminate malaria

Punjab Govt. in collaboration w/WHO launched Micro Strategic Plan to eliminate malaria from State by 2020.

Facts:

  • Punjab becomes 1st state in India where WHO will collaborate for Elimination of Malaria. Punjab can be 1st State to achive target to eliminate malaria by 2020.
  • India has 3rd highest burden of malaria in world.
  • Punjab is one of 15 low transmission States of India where only 0.1 % cases of malaria were reported as compared to rest of country.
  • Punjab Govt. has launched Mission Tandarust Punjab & established best infrastructure for De-Addiction Programme.
  • Punjab is 1st state to use malaria treatment card to ensure supervised & complete treatment of each case.
  • API (Annual Parasite Incidence) of Malaria in State is well below 1.0, target. State is able to keep ABER (Annual Blood Examination Rate) above target. Target of ABER was more than 10 till 2015. State had revised target of ABER in 2016 to 7.0.
  • Proportion of Pf (falciparum Malaria) is very low. P-Vivax malaria constitutes 97 - 99 % of total cases of malaria.

Mosquito population made extinct with genetic tweak

  • Scientists succeeded for 1st time in wiping out entire population of malaria-carrying mosquitos in lab using a gene editing tool to programme their extinction.
  • So-called gene drive technology ensuring that engineered trait is passed down to higher proportion of offspring would have occurred naturally.
  • In experiments w/species Anopheles gambiae, scientists at Imperial College London tweaked gene known as doublesex so that more females in each generation could no longer bite or reproduce. After only 8 generations, there were no females left & population collapsed due to lack of offspring.
  • Next step will be to test technology in confined laboratory setting that mimics tropical environment. It will be at least 5 - 10 years before it would be considered to test any mosquitoes w/gene drive in wild

Need to eliminate malaria causing mosquitos

  • Gene drive can work, providing hope in fight against a disease that has plagued mankind for centuries.
  • Malaria sickened more than 200 million people worldwide in 2016 & killed nearly 450,000. It remains one of most deadly of infectious diseases.
  • 2016 marked 1st time in over 2 decades that malaria cases did not fall year-onyear, despite aggressive & well-funded anti-malarial campaigns.

India ranks 158th in ‘human capital’ score

Study was conducted by Institute for Health Metrics & Evaluation (IHME) at request of World Bank. It is 1st of its kind to measure & compare strength of countries’ “human capital”.

Study underscores that when a country’s human capital score increases, its economy grows.

India’s relative performance:

  • India ranks 158th in world for its investments in education & health care. Nation is placed behind Sudan (157th) & ahead of Namibia (159th) in list.
  • South Asian countries ranking below India include Pakistan (164), Bangladesh (161) & Afghanistan (188).
  • Countries in region that have fared better than India in terms of human capital include Sri Lanka (102), Nepal (156), Bhutan (133) and Maldives (116).

Significance of human capital:

Findings show association b/w investments in education & health & improved human capital & GDP which policy-makers ignore at their own peril. As world economy grows increasingly dependent on digital technology, from agriculture to manufacturing to service industry, human capital grows increasingly imp. for stimulating local & national economies.

National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO)

  • According to figures released by NACO it said it would not be easy battle to end disease as there are still around 21.40 lakh people living w/HIV in India, w/prevalence among adults stood at 0.22%.
  • Objective of HIV estimations is to provide updated information on status of HIV epidemic in India at national & State/UT level.
  • Estimations of adult HIV prevalence, annual new infections (HIV incidence), AIDS-related mortality & prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) needs are produced as outcomes of HIV estimations.
  • Modelled estimates are needed because there is no direct reliable way of measuring these core indicators, which are used to track epidemic monitor & evaluate response around world

Analysis of report

  • This epidemic is high in some geographical regions & population groups
  • Report has noted that rate of decline in annual new HIV infections is relatively slower in recent years
  • Impact of HIV/AIDS control programme is significant, w/more than 80 % decline in estimated new infections from epidemic’s peak in 1995.

The sedition debate: Section 124-A of IPC

About Section 124-A and Criticism on it

  • Rulers tend to treat trenchant criticism as attempts to excite disaffection & disloyalty.
  • Foremost objection to provision on sedition is that its definition remains too wide. ‘Overbroad’ definitions typically cover both what is innocuous & what is harmful.
  • Under present law, strong criticism against govt. policies & personalities, slogans voicing disapprobation of leaders & stinging depictions of unresponsive or insensitive regime are likely to be treated as ‘seditious’.
  • So mindless have some prosecutions been in recent years that core principle enunciated by SC— that incitement to violence or tendency to create public disorder are essential ingredients of offence is forgotten.
  • As long as sedition is seen as reasonable restriction on free speech on ground of preserving public order, it will be difficult to contain its mischief.

Without maternity benefits: NFSA and PMMVY

Provision for maternity entitlements in NFSA is very imp. for women who are not employed in formal sector.

PMMVY undermines this provision due to dilution of entitled amount & exclusion criteria.

Scheme is to reach eligible women as implementation record is dismal till date.

Difference b/w National Food Security Act (NFSA) of 2013 & PMMVY

  • Under NFSA of 2013, every pregnant woman is entitled to maternity benefits of ₹6,000, unless she is already receiving similar benefits as govt. employee or under other laws.
  • PMMVY announced in 31st Dec. , 2016 violated NFSA on 3 grounds – 1st, benefits are reduced from ₹6,000 to ₹5,000 per child. 2nd, they are restricted to 1st living child. 3rd, they are further restricted to women above age of 18 years.

Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana or “Saubhagya” scheme

India is likely to achieve 100 % household electrification before 2019 Republic Day. India has provided electricity access to 2.39 cr. out of targeted 2.49 cr. households under Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana, Saubhagya scheme.

Status of Electrification

  • India has achieved 100 % electrification of households in 25 states by Dec. , 2018.
  • About 10.48 lakh households are left to be electrified in 4 states of Assam, Rajasthan, Meghalaya & Chhattisgarh.
  • Electrification got delayed in these states due to elections & Maoist problems. These states are making concerted efforts to achieve 100 % household electrification in their respective states.

Saubhagya scheme

  • Centre had launched scheme to provide electricity to all households by Dec. , 2018.
  • Households identified via Socio-economic & Caste Census (SECC) of 2011 are provided w/free electricity connections & others were charged a nominal fee of Rs. 500.
  • Scheme aims at providing last mile connectivity & electricity connections to all remaining households in rural & urban areas.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 29, 2019

Policy/Governance

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.