Expected Questions in Polity & Governance 2019-IAS/Net (Part 3) (Set-3) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

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Expected Questions on Governance and Polity 2019 Set 3 (UPSC CSE/SSC/IBPS)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Internal Security 2019 for IAS/SSC/Bank PO/NDA/CDS

Lancet report warns about heatwave exposure surge

  • Indians faced almost 60 mn heatwave exposure events in 2016, according to Lancet report.
  • It recommended Indian policy makers to take a series of initiatives to mitigate increased risks to health & loss of labour hours due to a surge in exposure to heatwave events.
  • Report has placed India amongst countries who most experience high social & economic costs from climate change.
  • Heatwaves are associated w/increased rates of heat stress & heat stroke, worsening heart failure & acute kidney injury from dehydration.
  • From 2014 - 2017, average length of heatwaves in India ranged from 3 - 4 days compared to global average of 0.8 - 1.8 days.
  • Indians were exposed to almost 60 million heatwave exposure events in 2016, a jump of about 40 million from 2012.
  • Agriculture sector was more vulnerable compared to industrial & service sectors because workers there were more likely to be exposed to heat.

Measles and Rubella vaccination campaign

  • Measles & Rubella vaccine is administered to all children group of 9 months to 15 years.
  • MR vaccine is given for preventing both measles & rubella diseases in child.
  • Govt. is providing MR vaccine free of cost thru its immunization programme.

About Measles

  • Measles is a deadly disease. It can lead to following complications -
  1. Pneumonia
  2. Diarrhoea
  3. Other deadly threats

About Rubella

  • This infection during pregnancy can cause congenital deformities in newborn baby:
  1. Blindness
  2. Deafness
  3. Mental Retardation
  4. Congenital heart disease

GST of 18 % on tendu leaves

Facts about Tendu Leaves

  • Tendu tree (Diospyros melanoxylon) is found widely across central India. Leaves plucked from its shrubs are used to wrap bidi, poor man’s cigarette. Gathering tendu is labour-intensive & employs millions of tribals.
  • Tendu leaf is financial lifeline of tribal people. Many tribals in central India depend of tendu leaf collection for subsistence. They collect leaves as part of their right defined under ST & Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
  • Madhya Pradesh is biggest Tendu Leaves producing State of India. Tendu tree is endemic to Indian sub-continent. It is found in dry deciduous forests throughout India.

Concern:

  • GST imposed on tendu leaves, Minor Forest Produce (MFP), is 18%. 18 % GST is made up of 9 % central GST (CGST) & 9 % state GST (SGST). Central tax on leaf was earlier zero. As tax is high, traders who get tender from state corporations to collect tendu leaves pay even less to tribals collecting leaves.
  • Hike in taxation will surely take a toll on tribals who depend on leaves for subsistence.

The Maine example: The preferential voting system

Recently concluded mid-term elections in U. S. received a lot of attention as opposition Democrats managed to decisively bring about “blue wave” to capture House of Representatives.

The preferential voting system

  • Electoral system used exclusively in Maine in House polls features not just a choice of candidates, but preferential ranking of them.
  • Voter can choose just one candidate, but rank candidates in an order of preference.
  • If a candidate wins 50 % of mandate plus one vote, she is declared winner. But if candidate falls short of this threshold, candidates are ranked again based on their second choices. And if this still falls below threshold, contest moves on to 3rd round.
  • Nobel laureate Amartya Sen had lauded preferential voting system before it was implemented in Maine, as ordered voting allows for a true majority choice to emerge, both in form of candidate chosen & reflection of views of majority, unlike simple first-past-the-post (FPTP) system.

De-odourising sewage

Issues in existing Sanitation Policy in India:

  • Issues in Swachh Bharat Mission: Under mission, in past 4 years alone, over 9 cr. toilets are constructed. Only 60 lakh are in urban areas, where one assumes they are connected to some sort of sewage system.
  • Poor Sewage Treatment: 63 % of urban sewage flowing into rivers is untreated & gap b/w sewage generated in urban areas (all Class 1 & Class 2 towns) & capacity for treating that is over 78%.
  • Underfunded Sewage Treatment in Smart City Mission: Of 99 cities in ‘Smart Cities’ mission, which are collectively spending ₹2 lakh cr. over 5 years (from 2015), only 2.4 % of money is going to be spent on waste mgmt.
  • Issues with AMRUT Mission:
  1. AMRUT covers a much larger spread which cover 500 ‘mission cities’ across country.
  2. Of these, only 217 pitched for sewage treatment plant as AMRUT project. Of these, in last 4 years, only 4 are completed, according to a reply filed in Lok Sabha.
  3. Of 212 schemes, as many as 189 are accounted for by just Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, MP, Maharashtra Gujarat. Only 6 other States have one or more projects under way.

Cabinet approves new National Electronics Policy 2019

Cabinet approved National Electronics Policy 2019, which aims to achieve turnover of $400 billion (abt ₹26 lakh cr. ) for electronics system design & manufacturing sector by 2025. It is expected to generate employment opportunities for 1 cr. people.

Policy will enable flow of investment & technology, leading to higher value addition in domestically manufactured electronic products & increased manufacturing of electronics hardware for local use as well as exports.

Salient Features of NPE 2019

  • Create eco-system for globally competitive ESDM sector: Promoting domestic manufacturing & export in entire value-chain of ESDM. Provide incentives & support for manufacturing of core electronic components.
  • Provide special package of incentives for mega projects which are extremely high-tech & entail huge investments, such as semiconductor facilities display fabrication, etc. Formulate suitable schemes & incentive mechanisms to encourage new units & expansion of existing units.
  • Provide incentives & support for significantly enhancing availability of skilled manpower, including re-skilling.
  • Create Sovereign Patent Fund (SPF) to promote development & acquisition of IPs in ESDM sector. Promote trusted electronics value chain initiatives to improve national cyber security profile.

PM-JAY app and National Health Authority

Union Health Minister launched PM-JAY app & inaugurated newly constituted National Health Authority (NHA) which aims to effectively implement PMJAY.

App is introduced w/I just 4 months since launch of scheme & is aimed at helping users get easy access to information on scheme, check eligibility, find hospitals nearby & get assisted help.

NHA w/stronger mandate would be able to prevent, detect & control frauds, abuse & redress grievances, thus resulting in reduction of leakages. NHA would be chaired by Union Health Minister and have representation from Govt. & domain experts.

About PM-JAY

  • Pradhan Mantri Jan Arogya Abhiyaan, known as Ayushman Bharat is world’s largest health scheme which will serve a population that equals 27 - 28 European countries. Beneficiaries are almost equal to population of Canada, Mexico & US put together. Scheme aims to provide cashless treatment to beneficiaries identified thru Central Socio-Economic Caste Census.
  • Scheme covers 1,350 medical conditions ranging from caesarean section to coronary stenting & joint replacement. It is govt. sponsored health insurance scheme. It will provide free treatment for up to Rs. 5 lakh a family a year in any govt. or empanelled private hospitals all over India.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 29, 2019

Policy/Governance

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.