Expected Questions in Science and Technology 2019 – IAS/NET (Part-1) - (Set 1) (Download PDF)

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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit - doorsteptutor. com. You can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (or SSLV)

  • ISRO’s Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Kerala has completed design for Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV).
  • Developed by ISRO
  • SSLV is ‘baby rocket’ designed to launch small satellites (payload capacity of 500 kg to Low Earth orbit or 300 kg to Sun synchronous orbit) in quickest way to space.
  • SSLV was developed w/aim of launching small satellites commercially at drastically reduced price & higher launch rate as compared to PSLV.
  • Manufacturing cost of SSLV is expected to be 10 % of that of PSLV.
  • It takes a mere 15 days & min. personnel to design SSLV.
  • SSLV has 3 solid motor stages & like PSLV & GSLV, can accommodate multiple satellites.
  • Unlike PSLV & GSLV, the SSLV can be assembled both vertically & horizontally.

Train 18 – India’s first engine-less train

Train 18 — India’s first engine-less train — breached 180 kmph speed threshold during a test run in Kota — Sawai Madhopur section, becoming country’s fastest train.

If trials go welt it may replace Shatabdi Express

Features & Facilities

  • Aerodynamically designed driver cabins at both ends for quicker turn-around at destinations
  • Alternate coaches are motorised to ensure even distribution of power & faster acceleration or deceleration
  • Regenerative braking system to save power
  • Inter-connected, fully sealed gangways
  • Automatic doors with retractable footsteps
  • Onboard Wi-Fi and infotainment
  • GPS-based passenger information system
  • Modular toilets with bio-vacuum systems
  • Rotational seats which can be aligned in the direction of travel (executive class)

Features & Facilities

  • Roller blinds and diffused LED Lighting
  • Disabled-friendly toilets
  • Emergency talk-back units to contact train crew
  • CCTVs in all coaches for safe and secure travel
  • 100 crore approx. cost of train
  • 200 kmph Possible peak speed
  • Jan. 2019 Expected commencement of commercial run
  • 5 more Train 18s in the pipeline
  • 16 Number of coaches (same as Shatabdi)
  • 18 months time reportedly taken to conceive, design and develop the train

Long March-9

Chinese Long March 9 is a super-heavy carrier rocket that will be able to support a manned mission to the Moon.

  • It is currently in initial design phase w/2 versions: one with liquid fuel boosters & one with solid fuel boosters. Liquid boosters may use kerosene/liquid oxygen engines with 500 T thrust.
  • Chinese Moon Rocket design payload to low Earth orbit maybe 130 metric tons.
  • Diameter: 8m to 10m (26ft to 32ft)
  • Height: 100 m (328 ft. )
  • Stages: 2 to 3
  • Payload to LEO: 100,000kg/130,000kg

Future

  • In future China may launcher to build Chinese Moon Orbiting Space Station, Moon base & could be used to launch missions for asteroid exploration & for mining.

SRIMAN: ‘Rent-a-lab’ policy

Policy could transform scientific instruments in govt. labs into lucrative assets generating steady rental income.

Policy called Scientific Research Infrastructure Management & Networks (SRIMAN).

Highlights of policy: Govt. plans to hire out to researchers all lab equipment that cost more than ₹10 lakh. This would reduce amount of time such expensive instruments remain idle.

How it works?

New system envisages institutions declaring on website how often their instruments would be available for use by those outside dept. or university. Those who would like to use DNA-sequencing machine, would have to pay a fee & specify purpose & time they would want it for.

Rationale behind policy:

Practice of researchers bidding for time-slots to use lab instruments is typically seen more w/very expensive equipment, like radio telescopes & particle-accelerators, which cost crores of rupees.

It was “common” to find in Indian laboratories, expensive equipment lying idle. “Large number” are not shared & are plagued by issues like maintenance & availability of spares. This adds to burden of research infrastructure costs.

India: AI Superpower or Client Nation

Google’s CEO compares Artificial intelligence w/fire & electricity in terms of their role in human civilization. Stephen Hawking feared that AI could end humanity.

Radical transformation:

  • AI systems are set to transform economic, social & political organisation.
  • Intelligent systems tend to centralize and monopolise control.
  • AI economy will radically concentrate income and wealth.
  • Many global digital industry leaders have called for assured basic income for all.
  • Just 1 or 2 concentrations of AI power may rule world. These are in U. S. & China.

India’s stand in AI race:

  • Fast squandering its great advantages of high IT capabilities & big domestic market required for data harvesting. AI develops w/I business processes, as data are mined from digital platforms & used into intelligence.
  • Any country’s AI largely exists within its huge, domestically owned commercial digital/data systems. In U. S. it is with Google, Amazon, Facebook, Apple & Microsoft - & in China w/Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent.
  • India does not possess large domestically owned commercial data systems.

Google & Microsoft are partnering w/U. S. military on AI applications & China’s companies even more closely so w/its military.

Digital/AI industry works in huge ecosystems w/global digital corporations at centre & various start-ups & specific digital/AI applications at peripheries.

Niti Aayog’s new AI strategy whether related to increased agricultural output, precision medicine or tailored learning is basically shop-window of global digital/AI corporations.

Suggestions for India to became an AI superpower:

  • Controlling huge commercial data ecosystems.
  • Technologies should flow freely across the globe.
  • Welcome global technology companies to help India’s digital development.
  • Data-based sectoral platforms - in e-commerce, urban transport, agriculture, health & education should largely be domestic.
  • India needs to provide domestic protection thru policy, if India begins to treat its collective social/economic data as a strategic national asset.
  • Such policy protection will ensure that large-scale data driven Indian companies able to develop highest AI in every sector.

Indo-UN Small Satellites Programme (UNSSP)

  • India to teach satellite tech to students from abroad
  • India has thrown open its satellite-building expertise to engineering graduates chosen from other countries.
  • ISRO’s Bengaluru-based U. R. Rao Satellite Centre (URSC) - known as ISAC - will train overseas students.
  • Capacity-building programme was India’s contribution to world in response to request that UN Office for Outer Space Affairs had made to space-faring nations last year.
  • Countries are marking 50th year of 1st UN Conference on Exploration & Peaceful Uses of Outer Space - called UNISPACE + 50.

Operation Sagar Rani

  • Operation Sagar Rani was launched by Food Safety department last year.
  • It ensures safety of fish sold in market & ensures that it was handled hygienically at handling & distribution centres.
  • Contaminated fish preserved using formalin (formaldehyde) were seized in Kerala.
Image of Information about Operation Sagar Rani

Image of Information About Operation Sagar Rani

Image of Information about Operation Sagar Rani

  • Toxic preservatives are being used by people/traders in Kerala who are importing fish from neighbouring States.
  • Unscrupulous fish wholesalers are using formalin, toxic & carcinogenic chemical commonly used to preserve dead bodies in mortuaries, to prevent fish from deteriorating during transportation.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 27, 2019

Science/Technology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.