Expected Questions on Bills, Acts, Policies - 2018 (Part - 1) (Download PDF)

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DOKLAM Pact. BRICS Summit. MoU between various nations. UAE became first country. which will participate in India’s Strategic Petroleum Reserves Program – Zakum. Nagoya Protocol. “Shared Future in a Fractured World” in Davos Summit 2018.

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Expected Questions on Bills, Acts, Policies 2018 (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on major Bills, Acts, Policies

  • Australia Group & Wassenaar Arrangement
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Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Wassenaar Arrangement, NPT, CTBT and 4 nuclear suppliers group

  • United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolved to Reject US Declaration of Jerusalem as Israel’s Capital
  • Incheon Strategy
  • Chennai is Included in UNESCO Creative Cities Network
  • Chabbar Port
  • Panchsheel Agreement
  • Latvia is First Baltic Sea Nation to Join with China’s OBOR
  • US Navy Tests World’s First Laser Weapons System (LaWS)
  • Vivid Sydney Gets Place in Guinness World Records of Maximum Number Light Installations
  • Important Index – Livability Index, LEADS Index, Legatum Prosperity Index, Global Manufacturing Index
  • COMMIT (Comprehensive Online Modified Modules on Induction Training) – improve public delivery mechanism
  • Council for Advancement of People’s Action and Rural Technology (CAPART)
  • Gorkhaland Issue

Section 124-A – Sedition Charges

  • Article 35A of the Indian Constitution empowers J&K state’s legislature to define permanent residents of the state

Section 498 A

  • Karnataka government and Goa government are fighting on sharing of waters of Mahadayi River
  • Social audit is a way of measuring, understanding, reporting and ultimately improving an organization’s social and ethical performance
  • 360 degree rating system

PENCIL: Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour

  • Red Corridor is the region in the eastern, central and the southern parts of India that experience considerable Naxalite–Maoist insurgency
  • Sarkaria Commission
  • Chakma & Hajong Refugees
  • Triple Talaq

Rohingyas -

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Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Rohingya Crisis & State of Stateless People

Policies

State Climate Change Policy

  • State cabinet given its approval to the state’s climate change adaptation policy.

  • Policy focuses on developing the environment friendly villages and cities in the state.

  • There will be a separate cell to oversee the implementation of the policy.

  • State government given the task of preparing the action plan to The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI).

  • Action plan focuses on:

    • health issues

    • mangrove conservation

    • providing basic infrastructure for the fishing business

National Civil Aviation Policy, 2016

  • Released by Ministry of Civil Aviation in New Delhi.

  • Since independence, first time this policy brought out by the Ministry.

  • Very comprehensive, covering 22 areas of the Civil Aviation sector.

  • Policy aims:

    • To take flying to the masses by making it affordable and convenient.

    • Establish an integrated ecosystem

  • Silent Features:

    • Regional connectivity Scheme

    • Route Dispersal Guidelines (RDG)

    • Bilateral Traffic Rights

    • Ground Handling Policy

    • Airport PPP/AAI

    • Aviation security, Immigration and Customs

    • Helicopters and Charters

    • Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO)

    • Aviation Education and Skill Building

Defence Blacklisting Policy

  • Currently, in the process of framing a new blacklisting policy.

  • At present, 15 entities including 6 foreign firms are blacklisted by the Ministry.

  • While, 23 others are under the scanner.

  • Used by the previous UPA government.

  • Led to shortages of ammunition and artillery guns and hampered the acquisition process.

  • New norms are expected to be a mixture of heavy fines, graded blacklisting and other penalties.

  • Policy cannot be in contravention to the laws of India.

Defence Procurement Policy (DPP), 2016

  • First one unveiled in 2002.

  • DPP 2016 will replace the Defense Procurement Procedure (DPP) 2013.

  • Come into force on 1st April 2016.

  • Policy framed based on the recommendations of the Dhirendra Singh Committee.

  • To ensure timely procurement of defense (military) equipment, systems.

  • Boosts India’s target of ‘Make in India’ policy.

  • Capital Acquisitions Schemes broadly classified into 3 categories:

    • Buy scheme

    • Buy and Make scheme

    • Make category scheme

  • Aim:

    • To ensure timely procurement of defense (military) equipment, systems, and platforms required by the armed forces.

    • Optimum utilization of allocated budgetary resources.

Draft National Energy Policy

  • Coal Ministry opposes NITI Aayog’s Draft Energy Policy.

  • This policy will replace the Integrated Energy Policy of the previous government.

  • Policy’s focus:

    • Clean energy resources such as solar and natural gas.

    • To improve the quality of air

    • To provide oil and gas mapping

  • Government targets to provide electricity to all Indians by 2022.

  • Ministry of Coal raised reservations over the draft National Energy Policy.

Draft National Wind Solar Hybrid Policy

  • Ambitious target of reaching 175 GW of installed capacity from renewable energysources.

  • It’s including:

    • 100 GW from solar

    • 60 GW from wind

  • Goal: To reach wind - Solar hybrid capacity of 10GW by 2022.

  • Solar and winds are almost complementary to each other.

  • Hybridization of two technologies would help in minimizing the variability.

  • Optimal and efficient utilization of transmission infrastructure.

  • Better grid stability by reducing the variability.

What is the strategy implementation?

  • Wind - Solar Hybrid - AC integration

  • Wind - Solar Hybrid - DC integration

  • Hybridization of existing wind/solar PV plants

  • New Wind - Solar Hybrid Plants

  • Regulatory Interventions

  • Incentives; R&D

Draft Women Policy

  • Last national policy on women was National Policy for Empowerment of Women, formulated in 2001.

  • Recipients of welfare benefits to mainstreaming gender concerns.

  • Aim: To create sustainable socio - economic, political empowerment of women.

  • Priority Areas:

    • Health including food security and nutrition

    • Education

    • Economy

    • Governance and decision making

    • Violence against women

    • Enabling environment

    • Environment and Climate change

Draft National Health Policy, 2015

  • National Health Policy, 2015 India’s third (draft) National Health Policy.

  • National Health policies (1983 and 2002) served in guiding approach for health sector in 5 year plans and for different schemes.

  • Addresses the urgent need to improve the performance of health systems.

  • Key policy principles:

    • Equity

    • Universality

    • Patient Centered & Quality of Care

    • Inclusive Partnership

    • Pluralism

    • Subsidiarity

    • Accountability

    • Professionalism, Integrity and Ethics

    • Learning and Adaptive system

Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP)

  • New Exploration Licensing Policy (NELP) formed in 1997 - 98.

  • Problem with NELP:

    • There are separate policies and licenses for different hydrocarbons.

    • Unconventional hydrocarbons (shale gas and oil) were unknown when NELP was framed.

    • Fixed pricing of gas led to loss of revenue and large number of disputes.

  • Policy is formulated to replace NELP and objectives of HELP:

    • To enhance domestic oil and gas production

    • Bring substantial investment

    • Generate sizable employment

    • Enhance Transparency

    • Reduce administration discretion

  • Four main aspects of this policy:

    • Uniform License

    • Open acreage policy

    • Revenue sharing model

    • Marketing and pricing freedom

IPR Policy 2016

  • Now, India becomes a major source of R&D service imports to the US economy and American MNCs.

  • Conducted survey considered India as the preferred location for R&D processes.

Seven objectives of policy can broadly be divided into three categories, those dealing with

  • Popularization and strengthening the administrative machinery for dealing with IPR issues (objectives 1, 4 and 7).

  • Generation and commercialization of IPRs (objectives 2 and 5).

  • Legal aspects, enforcement, and adjudication (objectives 3 and 6).

FDI Policy

  • Ex-post-facto approval for FDI policy amendments announced by the Government on 20th June, 2016.

  • FDI policy amendments are meant to liberalize and simplify the FDI policy.

  • Measures undertaken by Government have resulted in increased FDI inflows at US $55.46 billion in 2015 – 16.

  • As against US $36.04 billion during 2013 - 14.

  • Objective of providing major impetus to employment and job creation in India these changes were made.

    • Food Products

    • Defense Sector

    • Broadcasting Carriage Services

    • Pharmaceutical

    • Civil Aviation Sector

    • Private Security agencies

    • Animal Husbandry

Model Bilateral Investment Treaty

  • BIT is a treaty between two countries.

  • That sets out to provide certain basic protections to the investors of one state investing in another.

  • For instance, most such treaties provide investors a guarantee of “fair and equitable treatment”.

  • Other protections include:

    • rights against “expropriation”

    • both direct and indirect, of an investors’ investment

    • Most Favoured Nation (MFN) provision

  • Model BIT has very limited legal value.

  • Most of India’s existing BITs, signed with more than 70 countries, based on 2003 model.

Draft Guidelines for Safe Handling of Nano Materials

  • A task force of eminent expert under Nano Mission by the Department of Science and Technology has come out this draft guideline.

  • Involving the control of matter at Nano scale, Nano materials.

  • Characterized by small dimensions, large surface area and high reactivity.

  • Dangerous for human health and environmental safety with considerable scientific uncertainty regarding risks.

Guidelines:

  • Standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling nano materials in research laboratories and industries.

  • These lay down the process for identifying hazards.

  • Guidelines also lay down another set of best practices to the making and handling of nano powders and use of products relating to food and healthcare.

  • Precautionary approach.

  • Address the potential exposure pathways and concomitant safety measures to mitigate the same.

  • Address the potential exposure pathways and necessary safety measures to mitigate the same.

National Capital Goods Policy, 2016

  • Aim: Create game changing strategies for the capital goods sector.

  • Key recommendations and elements of the policy formulated to support and boost development of this crucial sector.

  • Policy finalized after extensive stakeholder consultations with:

    • industry

    • academia

    • different ministries etc.

  • Help in realising vision of ’Building India as the World class hub for Capital Good’s.

  • Play a pivotal role in overall manufacturing as the pillar of strength to the vision of ‘Make in India’.

  • Advocates adoption of a uniform Goods and Services Tax (GST).

National Drug Policy – A Comprehensive Approach

  • Government is planning a major service of the country’s drug policy.

  • That includes:

    • Reducing number of drugs under price control.

    • Doing away with the practice of periodic renewal of manufacturing licenses.

    • Making it easy to do medical and drug research in India.

  • Complex system administered by a maze of entities.

Factors to be considered when developing a pricing framework:

  • Must recognize medicines as an economic investment in health.

  • Drug discovery is a lengthy process.

  • Innovators need the assurance that research will be rewarded.

Partnering with Pharmaceutical companies: To revive the Jan Aushadhi program and help deliver high - quality generic medicines at affordable prices to all.

National Mineral Exploration Policy (NMEP) 2016

  • NMEP 2016 (Non - fuel and non - coal minerals).

  • Aims: At accelerating the exploration activity in India through increased participation of private sector.

  • Need for comprehensive mineral exploration of India to uncover its full mineral potential.

  • Through, that country can maximize sectoral contribution to the Indian economy.

Impact of NMEP:

  • To boost private investment & FDI in the country’s mineral exploration sector.

  • Attracting both domestic and foreign mining companies in exploration jobs.

  • Poised to break the monopoly of the state - owned enterprises.

  • Facilitate dissemination of information in mineral data.

  • Participate in the country’s development process.

  • Provide useful interpretation of the geoscience data and could spur.

New Educational Policy

  • Brought out by the Ministry of Human Resource Development.

  • New NEP comes after a gap of 30 years.

  • Last one, announced in 1986, was later revised in 1992.

  • Respond to ever changing requirements of a globalizing, knowledge based society.

  • Participate in the country’s development process.

  • Vision recognizes central role of education in India’s economic, social, political and cultural development.

  • Inclusive quality education and lifelong learning opportunities for all.

  • Develop responsible citizens who respect the Indian tradition of acceptance of diversity of India’s heritage.

Aim of the new policy: To meet the changing dynamics of the population’s requirement with regards to quality education, innovation and research.

Start Up India Policy

  • Start Up means “Working towards innovation, development, deployment or commercialization of new products, processes or services driven by technology or intellectual property”.
  • Start - up India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India.

Objective:

  • To give impetus to innovation

  • Encourage the talent among young people.

  • Remove onerous government regulations and red tape.

Key Features:

  • Self - certification start – ups

  • Start - up India hub (SIH)

  • Single Window Platform

  • Mobile App

  • Patent protection

  • Fund of Funds

  • Exemption of Capital Gains Tax

  • Credit Guarantee Fund for Start-ups

  • Tax Exemptions

  • Incubator set up by PPP

  • Rebate on filing of application

  • Atal Innovation Mission

  • National Initiative for Developing and Harnessing Innovations

  • Start-up Fest

  • Faster exit

Urban Transportation Policy

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Urban Transportation Policy

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Urban Transportation Policy along with land value capture and national Transit Oriented Development Policy

Issues in Urban Mobility:

  • Every 3rd person living in urban areas

  • 90 % global population growth occurs in cities

  • Urban sector share of GDP to increase from 66 % to 75 % in 2031

  • Urban transport account for 25 % GGHG emissions worldwide

  • Traffic congestion & productivity cost for consumers is major issue

  • Work trips account for 30 % transport

  • Share of public transport in 2011 was 30% & is reducing to 22 % by 2021

  • Informal operators like private minibus and microbus services – unsafe

Solutions:

  • Metro rail as alternative

  • Non-motorized means of communication – walking and bicycle – also bring lifestyle changes

  • Bus Rapid Transit System (BRTS)

  • Provides inclusive access to low income groups

  • Reduce negative externalities of pollution – car pooling

  • Clean fuels

  • PPP model - Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Singapore, Hong Kong, and London

  • Last mile connectivity

  • Integrated Land use & Transport Planning

  • Intermodal Integration

  • Land Value Capture policy

Land Value Capture Policy

Private land and buildings benefit from public investments in infrastructure and policy decisions of Governments.

  • Cycle in which value is created, realized and captured, and used again for project investment

  • Aims to enlighten states and UTs at local level – financial strength

  • Adopt Value Capture Finance (VCF) mechanisms – deliver fiscal autonomy and quality infrastructure.

National Transit Oriented Development (TOD) Policy

  • Integrates land use and transport with walkable communes & green spaces.

  • High density mixed land use development in the influence zone of transit stations.

  • Pedestrian trips to access various facilities.

  • Increases accessibility of the transit stations by creating pedestrian and Non-Motorized Transport (NMT) friendly infrastructure.

  • Promote public transport.

  • Reduction in the private vehicle ownership, traffic and associated parking demand.

  • Integrate the Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) and affordable housing in the influence zone

  • Safety of women, children, senior citizen, and differently abled by amending byelaws.

  • Prevent urban sprawl

  • Reduce carbon footprints

 Image of Policies

Image of Policies

Image of Policies

Rule’s

Bio Medical Waste Management Rules, 2016

  • New Bio - medical Waste (BMW) Management Rules released on March 2016 by Environment ministry.

  • It will bring in more comprehensive regime for bio waste management.

  • Aims: To improve the collection, segregation, processing, treatment and disposal of bio - medical wastes in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Features of BMW Management Rules, 2016:

  • Expansion of ambit

  • Phasing out chlorinated materials

  • Pre – treatment

  • Immunising health care worker

  • Bar - code for proper control

  • Reduction in categorization

  • Standards for incinerator

  • Common bio - medical waste treatment

E - Waste (Management) Rules, 2016

  • Inclusion of Manufacturer to address leakage of e - waste to informal sector at all the stages of channelization.

  • Inclusion of components

  • Inclusion of Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

  • Collection mechanism approach

  • Producer Responsibility Organization (PRO)

  • Pan India EPR

  • Collection and channelization of e - waste in Extended Producer Responsibility

  • No separate authorization

  • Deposit Refund Scheme

  • e - waste exchange

  • Manufacturer Responsibility

  • Bulk Consumer

  • Responsibility of State Government

  • Reduction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) during manufacturing Stage

  • The transportation of e-waste

  • Liability provision

  • Responsibility of ULBs - Urban Local Bodies (Municipal Committee/Council/Corporation)

Government Notifies Real Estate Rules

  • Government notified the final rules to implement the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016 (RERA).

  • Aims:

    • To bring transparency and set accountability in the sector.

    • Help in completion of stalled projects.

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Expected Questions on Bills, Acts, Policies 2018 (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on major Bills, Acts, Policies

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: June 1, 2018

Policy/Governance, Bills

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