Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS / NET (Part 1) - (Set 2) (Download PDF)

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📝 Monsoon Mission - CFS & UM - Models real time information on wind, temperature and humidity in digitized format. Objectives of Monsoon Mission: To setup state of the art dynamical modeling frame work for improving prediction skill of: Seasonal & extended range prediction system, Short and medium range prediction system.

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Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS/NET (Part 1) (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Environment 2018 for IAS and CBSE NET

📹 Refer Monsoon Mission:

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Monsoon Mission

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Monsoon Mission - Basis - CFS and UM model

  • To setup infrastructure and manpower required to improve the prediction skill at all-time scales.

  • To build working partnership between Academic/Research & Development Organizations.

👌 What is Bombogenesis?

  • Bombogenesis describes a mid-latitude cyclone that rapidly intensifies.

  • It means rapidly deepening extra tropical cyclonic low-pressure area.

Other names for Bombogenesis:

  • Explosive cyclogenesis

  • Weather bomb

  • Meteorological bomb

  • Explosive development

  • Bomb cyclone

Key Characteristic of Bombogenesis:

  • Refers to a rapidly intensifying area of low pressure.

  • Central pressure of a low-pressure system must drop at least 24 millibars within 24 hours. 👌

Blue Flag Certification

  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change launched pilot project ‘Blue Flag’ to develop and enhance standards of cleanliness on beaches.

  • Increase upkeep and basic amenities at beaches.

  • The ‘Blue Flag’ is a certification by the Foundation for Environmental Education (FEE).

  • Standards for FEE’s Blue Flag criteria include:

    • standards for water quality

    • safety

    • environmental education and information

    • the provision of services

    • general environmental management criteria

👌 India Slips to Bottom of Green Ranking at 177

  • Environmental Performance Index (EPI) rankings released on the sidelines of World Economic Forum meet in Davos

  • India slips to bottom five in a list of 180 countries.

  • India was placed at 177 positions.

Parameters are considered in ranking the Countries.

  • Air Quality (household solid fuels and PM2.5 exposure)

  • Water and sanitation

  • Heavy metals and lead exposure

  • Biodiversity and habitat

  • Forests (tree cover loss) Fisheries

  • Climate and energy (CO2, methane and black carbon emissions)

  • Air pollution (SO2and NOX emission)

  • Water resources (waste water treatment)

  • Agriculture (sustainable practice)

  • Countries like India, China, Pakistan, scored badly and demand urgent attention.

Top and Bottom five countries in 2018 EPI:

  • Top 5 countries: Switzerland, France, Denmark, Malta and Sweden

  • 👌 Bottom 5 countries: Nepal, India, Congo, Bangladesh, Burundi

Government Schemes to Promote Solar Energy

  • Calculated solar energy incidence on India’s land area is about 5000 trillion Kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year.

  • 👌 Top solar power projects in India are:

    • Bhadla solar park, Rajasthan

    • Kamuthi Solar Power Project, Tamil Nadu

    • Charanka Solar Park, Gujarat

    • Sakri Solar Plant, Maharashtra

    • Welspun Solar MP Project, Madhya Pradesh

    • Dhirubhai Ambani Solar Park, Rajasthan

  • The major upcoming solar projects are

    • Rewa district of Madhya Pradesh

    • Kurnool Ultra Mega Solar Park, Ananthapur, Andhra Pradesh.

Philippines: Lava Flows from Mount Mayon Volcano

  • Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology raised the alert level for Mount Mayon volcano to a three on a scale of five.

  • Mayon also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon.

  • Its crater in a gentle eruption that scientists are warning could turn explosive.

  • Mayon’s first recorded eruption was in 1616.

Alternative Fuels in India: Methanol as Fuel

  • 👌 NITI Aayog plans to set up Methanol Economy Fund of Rs. 4, 000 to 5, 000 crore for promoting production and use of methanol clean fuel.

  • Fund will promote generation of cheaper, safer and pollution free methanol fuel.

  • By converting high ash content coal and stranded gas assets into methanol.

  • Need for alternate fuels becomes clear for achieving government targets of:

    • 24×7power for all by 2022

    • 175 GW of installed capacity of renewable energy by 2022

    • Distribution of 50 million LPG connections to rural BPL women under Prime Minister Ujjwala Yojana

    • 10 % reduction in oil and gas import dependence by 2022 from 2014 - 15 levels.

Meteor Shower

  • Rocks and dust particles from space close to Earth’s atmosphere are called meteoroids.

  • Those entering and blazing through the atmosphere are called meteors.

  • 👌 Geminid Meteor Shower in 2017 - due to rocks from an unusual asteroid called 3200 Phaethon, discovered in 1983

  • Meteor showers also happen when Earth passes through a belt of asteroids.

  • Asteroids are rocky bodies going round the Sun from a region between the orbit of Mars and Jupiter.

📝 Blue Economy Versus Ocean Economy

📹 Refer -

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Blue Economy Versus Ocean Economy

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Blue Economy versus Ocean Economy recently in news with Gogha-Dahej Ro-Ro ferry

  • Plans for similar service in the bay of Kutch.

  • Focus on small growth centers like Dahej and Hazira for providing momentum to industrial development.

Mission Electrification and Railway Green Initiatives - Focus of IREEE 2017

  • Indian Railways is the preferred mode of transport with 1.3 million Workers

  • Indian Railways is targeting 100 % electrification- by applying economies of scale in “an incentive cum penalty” framework scheme.

  • Transport sector is the biggest consumer of energy.

  • Especially railway as the single largest consumer with 2 % of national energy consumption.

  • Aims to increase pace of electrification to about 30 km per day by:

    • Using precast foundation

    • Promoting mechanization of construction

    • Introducing technologies

    • Systemic changes in bidding system to bring bigger contract packages.

UNs District Energy in Cities, EESL Launches $454 Million

  • EESL’s projects, under one of the largest funding by GEF will mitigate 60 million tons of CO2.

    Equivalent through the use of new technologies under the new program “Creating and Sustaining Markets for Energy Efficiency” in partnership with Global Environment Facility (GEF). Project will help in recognizing India’s efforts towards a low emission-economy.

  • UN Environment’s ‘District Energy in Cities’ initiative already identified $600million of Energy Efficiency projects across 5 cities in India.

Mission Innovation Smart Grids for Renewable Energy

  • Mission Innovation challenge on Smart Grids is collectively working to enable future smart grids powered by renewables.

  • To combat growth of greenhouse gas emission.

  • New Initiatives for Smart Grid:

    • Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)

    • Distribution Management System (DMS)

    • Distribution Automation System (DA)

    • Energy management System (EMS)

    • Automated Meter Reading (AMR)

    • Outage Management System (OMS)

    • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

    • Geographical Information System (GIS)

Workshop on New National Policy on Biofuels

  • Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas organized workshop on New National Policy on Biofuels & VGF for 2nd Generation Ethanol Bio Refineries in New Delhi.

  • Provide better remuneration for farmers generating employment and doubling farmers’ income.

  • Workshop was organized for promoting Biofuels to:

    • Reduce import of crude oil- achieve the target of 10 % oil import reduction by 2022

    • Save foreign exchange

    • Augment economic growth

    • Address growing environment concerns with India’s Commitment at COP 21.

📝 Light Pollution

  • Light pollution is excessive, misdirected, or obtrusive artificial (usually outdoor) light.

  • Rate of growth of this light is approximately 2 % each year in both the amount of areas lit and the radiance of the light.

  • Both light pollution and energy consumption by lighting is steadily increasing over much of the planet.

  • Light pollution washes out starlight in the night sky interfering with astronomical research.

  • Lighting is responsible for one-fourth of all electricity consumption.

  • Over illumination constitutes energy wastage, especially upward directed lighting.

  • Energy wastage translates cost and carbon footprint.

👌 BS -VI Auto Fuel to Be Introduced Early in NCT Delhi

  • Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas successfully introduced BS-IV grade transportation fuels across the country on April 1st 2017.

  • BS (Bharat Stage) norms to regulate the output of air pollutants from internal combustion engines and Spark-ignition engines based on European standards of 2000.

  • To satisfy India’s commitment at COP 21 for reducing vehicular emissions and improve fuel efficiency.

  • Oil refining companies making huge investments in fuel up gradation projects to produce the BS-VI grade fuels.

  • Also, government examining possibility of introduction of BS-VI auto fuels in the whole of NCR area from 1st April 2018.

Controlling Erosion of Majuli Island-Floating B4 Boat Labs

  • To safeguard fast-eroding Majuli island - world’s largest Riverine Island - research on floating Brahmaputra Biodiversity and Biology Boat (B4) labs along Brahmaputra River.

  • Majuli is a river island in the Brahmaputra river and the 1st island district of India.

  • B4 boat labs is a large barge (or boat) set up on river euipped with laboratory and cold storage facilities for holding samples.

Reason for Erosion of Majuli Island:

  • Extensive soil erosion on its banks is due to large embankments built in neighboring towns upriver to prevent erosion.

  • Backlash of the tempestuous Brahmaputra’s thus falls on this islet, eroding most of the area.

  • Surveys show that in 15–20 years from now, Majuli would cease to exist.

  • The Brahmaputra River Restoration Project- Background on Efforts to Save Island.

1st International Symposium to Promote Innovation & Research in Energy Efficiency (INSPIRE 2017) at Jaipur

  • Five-day symposium is organized by Energy Efficiency Services Limited (EESL).

  • Partnership with the World Bank, and Alliance for Energy Efficient Economy (AEEE).

Deliberations driven by policy makers and experts from:

  • Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)

  • The World Bank Group

  • The Energy & Resource Institute (TERI)

  • International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI)

  • USA Representatives of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM)

All about Commercialization of GM Mustard

  • Centre told the Supreme Court that it had not granted approval for commercial cultivation of the Genetically Modified (GM) mustard crop.

  • That no plantation will start till its gives a clean nod.

  • 👌 Dhara Mustard Hybrid – 11 or DMH -11 is a genetically modified variety of mustard.

  • Uses a system of genes from soil bacterium that makes mustard.

  • Generally, hybrids are obtained by crossing 2 genetically diverse plants from the same species.

  • Researchers created hybridized mustard using GM technology.

Issue with GM Mustard:

  • Currently, India is debating the introduction of the herbicide tolerant GM mustard.

  • If allowed GM Mustard will become the first commercial genetically modified food crop introduced in India.

  • Second GM crop after cotton.

Environmental Concerns of Coal Mining in India

The government’s decision to open up 10 coal mines for commercial auction is expected to reduce the demand -supply gap and also ensure quality.

At present, the coal sector is facing major challenges associated with:

  • low productivity

  • governance

  • corruption

  • environmental concerns

👌 Mines to be opened up for auction are:

  • Chendipada, Chendipada -II, Mahanadi and Machhakata in Orissa

  • Shankarpur Bhatgaon II Extension, Durgapur II/Taraimar, Durgapur II/Sariya, Madanpur (North) in Chattisgarh

  • Dongri Tal II in Madhya Pradesh

  • Mednirai in Jharkhand

Revitalizing Coal Bed Methane in India

  • 👌 New policies such as OALP (Open Acreage License Policy) and HELP (Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy) may increase investment in Coal Bed Methane.

  • India’s production of Coal Bed Methane, a clean energy source grew more than 44 % last financial year to around 565 million standard cubic metres.

  • Coal Bed Methane (CBM) is natural gas found in coal seams.

Climate Change: Testing the Limits of Our Planet

  • Population of vertebrate species on Earth in the wild saw a dramatic fall of about 30 % between 1970 and 2006.

  • Worst effects in tropics and in freshwater ecosystem.

  • Ecological footprint of humanity the natural habitats.

Nine planetary boundaries:

  • Stratospheric ozone depletion

  • Loss of biosphere integrity

  • Chemical pollution and the release of novel entities

  • Climate Change

  • Ocean acidification

  • Freshwater consumption & global hydrological cycle

  • Land system change

  • Nitrogen and phosphorus flows to biosphere and oceans

  • Atmospheric aerosol loading

India Joins Quantum Computing Race

  • 👌 DST plans to fund a project to develop quantum computers to employ principles of quantum mechanics.

  • To store information in ‘qubits’ instead of the typical ‘bits’ of 1 and 0.

  • Qubits work faster because of the way such circuits are designed.

Urgent Need to Review the National Forest Policy

  • As it contains concepts that have been long discarded.

  • Terms and concepts used should be relooked

Major challenges to protect forest in India:

  • Pressure on forest land due to rising population.

  • There is rising encroachment

  • Increasing demand for forest resources

  • Rising conflicts between conserving forests for:

    • Generating ecosystem services

    • Diversion for developmental project

  • Diversion of forest lands to non-forest uses.

📝 👌 New Draft National Forest Policy:

  • Proposes the levy of a green tax

  • Undermines Forests Rights Act, 2006

  • Proposes to launch a new Community Forest Management Mission

  • Forest land diversion projects

  • National Board of Forestry and State Boards of Forestry

  • Develop ecotourism models

  • CAMPA funds from diversion of forest land by industry are to be used

  • Management plans for city forests, parks, garden and woodlands

  • Climate change

A Fragile Ark That Shelters 2626 Creatures

  • 👌 Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) produces first exhaustive compendium of animal diversity in the Sundarban islands and the threats it faces.

  • Titled Fauna of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve in Indian Sundarbans.

  • The Sundarbans is the only tiger mangrove kingdom in the world with 2, 626 animal species

  • The region hosts 2, 487 species that come under the zoological kingdom of Animalia.

  • 140 come under the more primitive Protista.

Threats Sundarbans facing today:

  • Due to pressure on habitat from people.

  • Two Rhinos, Swamp deer, Barking deer and Hog deer and Asiatic Wild Water buffalo are not found in Sundarbans anymore.

  • There are 356 species of birds, the most spectacular being raptors, or birds of prey.

  • IUCN conservation status shows:

    • 6.3 % fish are near threatened

    • 4.85 % are threatened

  • Also, there are 173 molluscs.

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Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS/NET (Part 1) (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Environment 2018 for IAS and CBSE NET

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: April 4, 2018

Environment/Ecology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.