Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS / NET (Part 2) - (Set - 2) (Download PDF)

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SECURE Himalaya Project and Third National Wildlife Action Plan for 2017 - 2031 - Union Government launched SECURE Himalaya, a six-year project, For conservation of locally and globally significant biodiversity,

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Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS/NET (Part 2) (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Environment 2018 for IAS and CBSE NET part 2

  • Land and forest resources in high Himalayan ecosystem.

  • Spread over four states viz.

    • Himachal Pradesh

    • Jammu and Kashmir

    • Uttarakhand

    • Sikkim

  • Union Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change (MoEFCC) also unveiled third National Wildlife Action Plan 2017 - 2031 guiding road map for wildlife conservation.

  • Their Plan was initiated in February 2016 and drafted by a 12-member committee.

Vulnerable Odisha Tribe First to Benefit from Forest Act

  • 👌 Mankidia, one of the 13 Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTG) in Odisha.

  • Denied habitat rights inside the Similipal Tiger Reserve (STR) under the historic ‘Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act’, 2006.

  • State Forest Department objected on grounds that tribals could be attacked by wild animals, especially tigers.

  • Mankidia, is a marginalised group that critically depends on making rope with siali fibre that’s richly available in Similipal.

What is CVI? Rough Sea Eroding Coastal Villages in South Gujarat

  • Gujarat’s 1, 617 km coastline the longest in the country is the lifeline.

  • Being chewed away across large swaths by the Arabian Sea.

  • Tides and currents are becoming high, thus reaching the villages on the banks of Arabian Sea.

  • 35.98 % of the Gujarat coast is eroding.

  • 1035.23 sq km area has been lost already.

  • 👌Nani Danti and Moti Danti villages of Valsad district and Borsi Macchiwad village of Navsari district are the most affected.

Single Database for Ground Water

  • National Hydrology Project is an on-going pan India project.

  • Implemented by the Ministry of Water Resources, RD & GR with the World Bank assistance.

  • Project envisages to cover the entire country as the earlier hydrology projects covered only 13 States.

  • Central Ground Water Board is generating and collecting data.

  • It aims for:

    • Modernization of the water resources

    • Data collection

    • Modern monitoring infrastructure

👌 What is DHARMA? International Dam Safety Conference to Be Held at Thiruvananthapuram

  • India hosting the International Dam Safety Conference - 2018 at Thiruvananthapuram on January 23 - 24.

  • India ranks third globally with 5254 large dams in operation.

  • About 447 are under construction.

  • In addition, there are several thousand smaller dams.

  • DHARMA is a web tool to digitize all dam related data effectively.

  • It is a new stride in asset management aspect by India.

Water Crisis in India- is India Heading to ‘Day Zero’

Refer Down to Earth Summary March 2018

  • About 330 million people in India facing severe droughts issues this year.

  • The coal-fired power plants –the major source of electricity in India are at the same time facing huge deficits, resulting in energy crisis.

  • Government appointed armed guards to prevent desperate farmers from stealing water.

📝 Reasons for Water Crisis in India?

  • Sharp decrease in groundwater levels

  • Illegal removal of sand

  • Climate changes and global warming Incidents of increased heat waves.

  • Poor water quality due to arsenic and other chemical contamination.

  • No rain catchment programs

Steps to Reduce Depletion of Groundwater Resources

  • National Water Policy (2012) formulated advocates conservation, promotion and protection of water.

  • Highlights the need for augmenting the availability of water:

    • through rain water harvesting

    • direct use of rainfall

    • other management measures.

  • Model Bill forwarded to all the States and UTs to enact suitable groundwater legislation.

  • For its regulation and development, includes provision of rainwater harvesting.

Solar Energy Installed Capacity Reached 13652 MW

  • By 31st July 2017, the cumulative Solar Energy capacity installed is 13652 MW.

  • While the same at the end of 2014 - 15 was 3743.97 MW.

  • The States of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Telangana crossed the solar installed capacity of 1 GW.

  • Government revised the National Solar Mission.

  • Target of Grid Connected Solar Power projects from 20, 000 MW by 2022 to 100, 000 MW by 2022.

👌 Castor Plant Reduce Soil Pollution

  • Researchers from University of Hyderabad found that Castor bean plants prove useful in fighting soil pollution.

  • By absorbing toxic heavy metals from soil due to industrial pollution.

  • These plants accelerate the remediation of polluted soils through chelators.

  • Castor seed plants one of the sturdiest plants growing in highly polluted soil, including mining area.

  • Castor plants having medical properties are also a boon for soil pollution and are abundant in India.

Green Climate Fund: NABARD’S AMA with GCF

  • National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) signed an Accreditation Master Agreement (AMA) with the Green Climate Fund (GCF).

  • Becoming first Indian organisation to get Direct Access Entity status of the GCF providing first step to access GCF resources.

  • India laid down ambitious mitigating goals for Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) in the Paris Climate agreement (2015).

  • Only one project, “Installation of Groundwater Recharge System” in Odisha amounting to $34 million used funds from GCF but several projects are proposed.

📹 Sagar Vani: Information Dissemination System for Coastal Community

Refer -

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Naming of Tropical Cyclones & Ockhi Cyclone

Dr. Manishika Jain explains naming of tropical cyclones in North Indian Ocean and Ockhi Cyclone recently.

  • Ministry of Earth Science launched Sagar Vani.

  • An integrated information dissemination system to serve coastal community.

  • Especially anglers with advisories and alerts towards safety at Sea.

  • Developed by ESSO-Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS).

  • Software platform with dissemination modes integrated on a single central server.

  • Compares with most advanced services in terms of speed, diverseness and omni channel capabilities.

Colors of warning:

Table contain shows the Colors of warning

Table contain shows the Colors of warning

Stage of warning

Colour code

Cyclone Alert

Yellow

Cyclone Warning

Orange

Post landfall out look

Red

👌 SC Bans Antimony, Lithium, Mercury, Arsenic and Lead in Fireworks: Harms of These Chemicals

  • 👌 According to SC directives, no firecrackers manufactured shall contain antimony, lithium, mercury, arsenic and lead in any form whatsoever.

  • The substances cause air and noise pollution.

  • Court asked PESO to ensure compliance by manufacturers.

  • Lithium causes nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, muscle weakness, fatigue, and a dazed feeling.

  • Elemental and methylmercury are toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  • Long-term exposure to arsenic causes cancer in the skin, lungs, bladder, and kidney.

  • Lead causes permanent health problems, particularly in development of the brain and nervous system.

Eastern and Western India Floods-2017

  • There were two low-pressure areas over the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea at the same time.

  • Bringing heavy rainfall to Saurashtra, northern Gujarat, southern Rajasthan, Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, and eastern Chhattisgarh.

  • This heavy rain developed because of an unusual formation of the monsoon trough.

  • Normally, the depression travels North West, but for the last four to five years this pattern of the depression is travelling westerly.

  • Central India is having higher rainfall while North India getting less rain each year.

  • The monsoon depressions intensify over the Bay of Bengal, move west-north-west (WNW) and dissipate over the Indian continent.

📝 Promotion of Clean Fuel in Railways

  • Railway is one of the most fundamental (apart from roads) means of transportation.

  • Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Hg, Fe, Co, Cr, Mo) contents were established in soil.

  • Plant samples collected in different areas of the railway junction.

  • Two most important types of pollutants connected with railway transport are:

    • polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    • heavy metals

  • Railways taking the following several steps to promote use of clean fuels and reduce carbon emissions.

    • Use of B5 (5 % Bio-Diesel) blends of bio diesel in the diesel locomotives.

    • Development of Common Rail electronic Direct Injection (CReDI) system.

    • Exploring the use of Methanol on Railways locomotives.

    • Promote use of LNG and CNG as environment friendly industrial gas. etc.

Integrated Security System at Stations, Waste Disposal Plants, Smart Stations, Accessibility

  • For security, 202 stations identified as sensitive.

  • For the purpose of installation of an Integrated Security System (ISS) to strengthen surveillance.

  • Railways proposed a pilot project for disposal of municipal solid waste generated at major railway terminals in an environment friendly manner.

  • To provide better accessibility to persons with disability.

  • Short term facilities detailed below are planned at all stations, beginning with ‘A-1’, ‘A’ & ‘B’ category stations.

  • Security at railway Stations: ISS comprises of Close Circuit Television (CCTV) Cameras, Access Control, Personal and Baggage Screening System and Bomb Detection and Disposal System.

Antibiotics Resistance: Antibiotics in Animal Feed-Overuse of Antibiotics for Growth Promotion

  • US-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy (CDDEP) found samples from 530 birds in 18 poultry farms in Punjab.

  • Found resistant to a range of critical antibiotics.

  • Found high levels of antibiotic resistant pathogens in chickens for eggs.

  • Meat posing serious health hazards for humans.

  • Two-thirds of the farms were using antibiotic for growth promotion.

  • Farms using antibiotic factors three times likely to be multidrug resistant.

  • Reservoirs of resistance found across both types of farms.

  • Antibiotics are used in livestock for treatment or sub-therapeutic doses in animal feed and water.

  • Used to promote growth and improve feed efficiency.

Difference between Biomethane and Fossil Fuel-India’s First Bio-CNG Bus Developed by Tata Motors

  • 👌 India’s largest Commercial Vehicles manufacturer Tata Motors unveiled first Bio-CNG (bio-methane) bus.

  • Bus was rolled out at the Urja Utsav, bio-energy program.

  • First of its kind bio-methane bus provides an alternate greener fuel technology.

  • Natural gas classified as fossil fuel, whereas biomethane is defined as a green source of energy.

  • Methane is 20 times more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide if released into the atmosphere.

📝 Underwater Abandoned Nets (Ghost Nets) Off Kerala Coast Major Threat to Marine Ecosystem

  • Ghost nets become greatest killers of the marine ecosystem off Kerala coast.

  • Ghost nets destroyed or threatened underwater reefs required for flourishing fish stock by ‘stifling cover’.

  • Globally, an estimated 10 % reduction in fish catch is blamed on ghost nets.

  • Restrict movement, causing starvation, laceration and infection, and suffocation especially in species.

Environment Ministry Approves Projects in 3 States Under NAFCC

  • Environment Ministry approved three projects for climate change adaptation in three states.

  • Sikkim:

    • Address issue of water security expected to be made worse by climate change.

    • Important for reducing impact of climate change.

  • Rajasthan:

    • Bolster water security under the Chief Ministers Jal Swavlamban Abhiyan. 👌

    • By making villages self-reliant.

  • Gujarat:

    • Enhance livelihood possibilities for natural resource.

    • Dependent communities in face of climate change in villages of Kutch District.

  • Projects funded under the National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC).

Indian Railways Organization for Alternate Fuel (IROAF) Won Golden Peacock Award for Eco Innovation

  • IROAF won Golden Peacock Award for the year 2017 for Eco Innovation for 2017.

  • For introducing eco-friendly and cost saving dual fuel 1400HP Diesel engines on DEMU trains.

  • Major landmark for Indian Railways Organization for Alternate Fuel (IROAF).

  • 40 % substitution is at present being developed by IROAF.

About Golden Peacock Awards:

  • Instituted by the Institute of Directors (IOD) in 1991.

  • Regarded as a benchmark of Corporate Excellence worldwide.

  • Transparency & impartiality of the assessment process.

Kerala Government Adopts ’Green Protocol’ for Nature-Friendly Wedding

  • Kerala State government adopting Green Protocol.

  • This step taken in the direction of pollution free environment by to make weddings more nature-friendly.

  • Protocol adopted under anti-plastic drive and Green-Kerala Mission of Kerala government.

  • Plastic and other non-biodegradable articles such as disposable glasses and plates and thermocol decorations will be banned in wedding under this protocol.

Ozone Recovery May Be Delayed by Rise of Paint Stripper Chemical Dichloromethane 👌

  • Because of unregulated ozone-depleting substance in the environment.

  • Recovery of Antarctic ozone levels can be delayed by five to 30 years.

  • Previously ignored chemical called dichloromethane.

  • It may be contributing to ozone depletion.

  • The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  • It was adopted in 1987 in Montreal and implemented in 1989.

  • Present, Ozone mostly in upper atmosphere in the stratosphere (90%).

  • Scientists at the University of Leeds discovered increasing concentration of VSLS (Very Short-Lived Substances) may be depleting ozone.

Highest Aviation Alert Level Issued After Alaskan Volcano Erupts

  • Active 6 months ago and it results cloud of ash up to 35, 000 feet high.

  • Located at Bogoslof Island of Alaska which is part of the Aleutian island chain.

NPC Introduce Training of Trainers Programme on Capacity Building for 6 Waste Management Rules

  • NPC Introduce Training of Trainers Program on Capacity Building for Six Waste Management Rules 2016.

  • Main objective: To make environment of the city healthy by making stronger institutional capacities.

  • Training of Trainers Programme aims:

    • To train and connect Waste Management Experts from different parts of the country.

    • It will further serve as Master Trainers at NPC Conference on 29 - 30 June 2017.

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Expected Questions on Environment 2018 - IAS/NET (Part 2) (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Environment 2018 for IAS and CBSE NET part 2

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: April 6, 2018

Environment/Ecology

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.