Expected Questions on Environment & Latest Developments 2019 - IAS/(Part-1) (Set-2) (Download PDF)


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Please find below the most important expected topics for the upcoming UPSC Prelims exam 2019. Subscribe@Examrace YouTube Channel to get the complete series of expected questions. For practice and solutions visit -. doorsteptutor. com YYou can download the pdf by clicking the option “Download PDF”.

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Expected Questions on Environment 2019 - Part 1

Dr. Manishika Jain discusses Expected Questions on Environment 2019 for IAS/NET

National Clean Air Programme Launched

Programme aims to tackle challenge of increasing pollution in cities & towns.

  • It is 5-year action plan w/tentative target of 20 - 30 % reduction in concentrations of PM10 & PM2.5 by 2024, with 2017 as the base year.
  • Plan covers 102 non-attainment cities, across 23 states & UTs, which were identified by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) on basis of their ambient air quality data b/w 2011 & 2015.
  • Centre plans to scale up air quality monitoring network across India under program.
  • Plan document is not binding on states since document is not a legal document.

Features of the Programme

  • 3-tier system, including real-time physical data collection, data archiving, & action trigger system in all 102 cities, besides extensive plantation plans, research on clean-technologies, landscaping of major arterial roads, and stringent industrial standards are proposed under plan.
  • State-level plans of e-mobility in 2-wheeler sector, rapid augmentation of charging infrastructure, stringent implementation of BS-VI norms, boosting public transportation system & adoption of 3rd -party audits for polluting industries are proposed part of plan.
  • Environmentalists demand more stringent action to ensure safety & well being of millions of lives risk because of continuously growing air pollution crisis.

South Asian Nitrogen Hub

  • To study nitrogen pollution in India & South Asia.
  • Project led by UK’s Centre for Ecology & Hydrology will partner w/50 organisations from UK & South Asia.
  • Indian Institutions partnering study are:
  1. National Institute of Oceanography
  2. Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University
  3. Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology
  4. Jawaharlal Nehru University
  5. Aligarh Muslim University
  6. National Physical Laboratory
  7. TERI University
  • Project aims to study impact of diff. forms of nitrogen pollution, in 8 countries of South Asia which includes India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Bhutan & Maldives.

Stock Taking Conference on Tiger Conservation

  • In conference, discussions should be held on status of Global Tiger Recovery Program (GTRP) by all tiger range countries besides deliberations on combating wildlife trafficking.
  • Conference organised by Global Tiger Forum, an implementing arm of Global Tiger Initiative Council (GTIC)
  • Program seeks to empower Tiger Range Countries (TRCs) to address entire spectrum of threats, domestic as well as those that are transboundary in nature & work toward increased financial sustainability thru integration of conservation objectives into development.
  • To address crisis haunting Tiger Survival especially Asian biodiversity crisis, TRCs, international organizations & civil society have come together on collaborative platform w/I framework of Global Tiger Initiative (GTI) at St. Petersburg, Russia.

GTRP is developed w/shared goal of doubling number of wild tigers globally by 2022 for:

  • To effectively manage, preserve, protect & enhance tiger habitats.
  • To eradicate poaching, smuggling & illegal trade of tigers, their parts & derivatives.
  • To cooperate in transboundary landscape mgmt. & in combating illegal trade.
  • To engage w/indigenous & local communities.
  • To increase effectiveness of tiger & habitat mgmt.
  • Restore tigers to their former range.

2 February: World Wetlands Day

  • World Wetlands Day - 2nd Feb. w/theme of “Wetlands & Climate Change”.
  • Theme signifies importance of healthy & intact wetlands to one of most pressing challenges of our times, climate change.
  • Theme aimed at increasing awareness of importance of wetlands, like swamps, marshes, mangroves or peatlands, to help us cope w/ & mitigate global warming.
  • World Wetlands Day aims to bring attention towards protection of fragile wetlands which are threatened by human activity.
  • Rate of disappearance of Wetlands is 1 % which is at higher rate than deforestation.
  • Wetlands are exposed to draining & burning for agricultural enterprise & rural development & rising sea levels.
  • Celebrated to commemorate signing of Convention on Wetlands, called Ramsar Convention at Iranian city of Ramsar on shores of Caspian Sea.
  • 2 fold objectives of Ramsar Convention are Conservation & sustainable utilization of wetlands & stop encroachment & loss of wetlands.

Significance of Wetlands

  • Wetlands are key to climate change mitigation.
  • Wetlands function as a natural & extremely efficient carbon sink.
  • Wetlands act as a buffer for climate catastrophes that help communities be resilient against immediate impacts of climate change.

Impact of global warming on El-Nino

  • El-Nino occurs every 2 - 7 years w/very strong El Niño’s occurring abt every 15 years results in droughts, floods, wildfires, dust & snow storms, fish kill &even elevated risks of civil conflicts.
  • El-Nino is measured by studying averages sea surface temp. anomalies over central-eastern tropical Pacific.
  • Study analyses impact of global warming on El-Nino is published in journal Nature in Dec. , 2018.

Findings of Study

  • Study serves warning to countries on all continents that suffer from these extreme weather events during strong El Niño events such as ones during 1982 - 83,1997 - 98 and 2015 - 16.
  • Study notes that eagerly-awaited winter rain & snow storms over California did not occur during latest extreme El Nino. It is unclear whether global warming is affecting El Nino & its remote impacts.
  • Study argues that it is unclear if impact of global warming on El Nino can easily be extracted considering its intrinsic tendencies & its dependency on so many factors that are not easily predictable.

Great Indian Bustard is the Mascot for COP-13 on Migratory Species

  • Govt. has announced Great Indian Bustard (GIB) as mascot for 13th Conference of Parties (COP) of UN Convention on conservation of migratory species (CMS) was to be in Gujarat
  • Logo, mascot & website for 13th Conference of Parties (COP) was launched by Minister for Environment, Forests & Climate Change.
  • Mascot for event, Great Indian Bustard is fondly named as ‘Gibi’.

Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS)

  • CMS is international treaty under aegis of UN Environment Programme (UNEP). It is known as Bonn Convention.
  • CMS aims to conserve terrestrial, marine & avian migratory species throughout their range.
  • Convention provides global platform for deliberations on conservation & sustainable use of migratory wild animals & their habitat
  • Headquarters - Bonn, Germany

India-Norway Marine Pollution Initiative

India & Norway had agreed to work more closely on oceans by signing MoU & establishing India-Norway Ocean Dialogue.

India-Norway Marine Pollution Initiative is 1st Joint initiative & it takes forward commitments made under MoU.

Initiative aims to combat marine pollution, which is one of fastest growing environmental concerns.

Initiative will support local govt. in implementing sustainable waste mgmt. practices, develop systems for collecting & analyzing information abt sources & scope of marine pollution & improve pvt. sector investment.

Initiative will support beach clean-up efforts, awareness-raising campaigns & pilot project using plastic waste as fuel substitution for coal in cement production & developing frameworks for deposit schemes.

Environment Ministry Releases ‘India – Spearheading Climate Solutions’

MOEFCC has released publication titled “India – Spearheading Climate Solutions”. Document mentions India’s key actions taken towards combating & adapting to climate change.

India’s Key Actions Towards Combating and Adapting Climate Change

  • India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
  • International Solar Alliance (ISA)
  • State Action Plan on Climate Change (SAPCC)
  • FAME Scheme
  • Atal Mission for Rejuvenation & Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
  • Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana
  • UJALA scheme
  • Swachh Bharat Mission
  • National Adaptation Fund for Climate Change (NAFCC)

Other Initiatives Taken by Government

  • Ambitious goal of generating 175 GW of renewable energy by 2022.
  • India will leapfrog from Bharat Stage -IV to Bharat Stage-VI emission norms by April 2020.
  • India’s renewable energy capacity stands at more than 74 GW today including abt 25 GW from solar.
  • India submitted its 2nd Biennial Update Report (BUR) to UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) in Dec. , 2018 as per reporting obligations under convention, which stated that India’s GDP came down by 21 % b/w 2005 & 2014. It stated that India’s climate-goal for pre-2020 is well on track.

World Sustainable Development Summit 2019

World Sustainable Development Summit 2019 - organized by Energy & Resources Institute – TERI.

World Sustainable Development Summit

  • World Sustainable Development Summit - annual flagship event of The Energy & Resources Institute (TERI).
  • Summit is sole Summit on global issues taking place in developing world.
  • Summit provides a platform for global leaders & practitioners to discuss & deliberate over climatic issues of universal importance.
  • Summit strives to provide long-term solutions for benefit of global community by assembling world’s most enlightened leaders & thinkers on a single platform.
  • Summit is continuing legacy of Delhi Sustainable Development Summit (DSDS) which was initiated in 2001 w/aim of making ‘sustainable development’ a globally shared goal.

The Energy and Resources Institute – TERI

  • TERI –Tata Energy Research Institute, Established - 1974.
  • TERI has emerged as one of world’s pre-eminent think tanks & research institutions in field of energy, climate change & sustainability.
  • TERI aims to usher transitions to a cleaner & sustainable future thru conservation & efficient use of Earth’s resources & innovative ways of minimizing & reusing waste.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 8, 2019


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