Expected Questions on Health and Defense 2018 - (Part - 1) (Download PDF)

()

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 273.37 K)

Usutu Virus - It belongs to “flavivirus” family along with tick-borne encephalitis, West Nile, and Dengue virus, The virus is an African origin and it was first detected in Austria in 2001. It caused a severe bird die-off, mainly of blackbirds and songbirds.

Loading video•••

Expected Questions on Health & Defence 2018 (In Englilsh)

In this session we will cover Expected Questions on Health & Defence 2018

  • Besides wild birds, humans can also be infected with virus through mosquito bites.

  • This year, already the virus is detected in songbirds in Austrian region.

What is TCV? WHO Approves Indian Typhoid Vaccine, Typbar for Global Use

  • WHO given it’s pre-qualification to Typbar Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine (TVC) developed by Hyderabad based Bharat Biotech for global use.

  • TCVs are innovative products having longer-lasting immunity than older vaccines and require fewer doses.

  • Typbar TCV is world’s first typhoid vaccine clinically proven to be administered to children from six months of age to adults.

  • It confers long-term protection against typhoid fever.

  • Vaccine evaluated in Human Challenge Studies at Oxford University.

Warning Labels Compulsory on Fast Food

  • To help consumers make an informed choice, FSSAI decided to revise its labelling regulation making it mandatory.

  • To address the issue of High Fat, Sugar and Salt (HFSS) in food and associated health risks, the FSSAI had constituted a group.

  • Warning labels typically declare high content of certain nutrients (mostly salt, sugar, fat and may also be about allergens).

What is Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD)? Monkey Fever Strikes Karnataka’s Tirthahalli Taluk

  • Karnataka’s Tirthahalli taluk came under grip of Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) or monkey fever.

  • Five positive cases and one death have been recorded in humans.

  • 5 monkeys died in the forest of Ghantejanagallu near Suruvinakoppa village.

  • In 2016 - 17, four persons died of KFD in Tirthahalli and 48 positive cases were reported.

  • Monkey fever affects black-faced langurs and red-faced bonnet monkeys resulting in their death- and hence the name.

National Medical Commission Bill: New Regulator for Medical Education, Exit Tests for MBBS

  • Union Cabinet cleared National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill, dissolving Medical Council of India (MCI) as the apex medical education regulator.

  • MCI Used to conduct annual inspections and managed the education.

  • New bill also proposes exit exam for medical graduates post MBBS.

  • New licentiate (exit) examination will be started in three years of passage.

  • Bill replaces existing apex medical education regulator Medical Council of India (MCI) with National Medical Council (NMC), a new body to ensure transparency.

  • NMC to prescribe norms for determination of fee for upto 40 % seats in private medical colleges.

India Eliminated Infective Trachoma? Which Other Diseases Have Been Eliminated

  • Infective Trachoma was a leading cause of infectious blindness among children.

  • India is now declared free of Infective Trachoma.

  • Trachoma caused by poor environmental and personal hygiene and inadequate access to water and sanitation.

  • National Trachoma Survey Report (2014 - 17) found that the active trachoma infection eliminated among children in all the survey districts with overall prevalence of only 0.7%.

  • Three diseases have been eliminated in India: Yaws, Leprosy, and Guinea worm.

What is National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organization (NOTTO) Program

  • Union government, as part of the national organ transplant program plans to set up 6 biomaterial centers or tissue banks to cater to a growing demand for tissues in various medical procedures.

  • National Biomaterial Centre at Safdarjung Hospital in Delhi is first such government facility set up with at an estimate of Rs. 20 crore.

  • It has four separate chambers each for cornea, skin, bones and heart valves - four main transplanted tissues.

  • NOTTO is set up under Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.

  • It has following two divisions:

    • National Human Organ and Tissue Removal and Storage Network

    • National Biomaterial Centre

FAST Test to Remember the Signs of Stroke

  • FAST acronym is used as a mnemonic to help detect and enhance responsiveness to stroke victim needs.

  • FAST was developed in the UK in 1998.

  • Developed by a group of stroke physicians, ambulance personnel and an emergency room physician.

  • Designed to be an integral part of a training package for ambulance staff.

  • It stands for:

    • Facial drooping

    • Arm weakness

    • Speech difficulties

    • Time to call emergency services

Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Survey: Food Deficiencies and Tuberculosis

  • According to GBD Survey, two most common ailments in India are:

    • nutritional deficiencies

    • tuberculosis

  • Provides survey with collaboration of over 12, 300 researchers from 130 countries.

Low-Cost Cancer Detection Method Developed by IIT-Ropar

  • IIT-Ropar developed low-cost cancer-detection method.

  • Plans to extend the in vivo experiments for determining early skin cancer collaborating with medical institutes.

  • Early stage cancer detection is done using Dynamic Thermal Imaging (DTI) in a simple clinical setting.

  • Changes in the temperature distribution are recorded as images and videos using a thermal camera.

  • Team using DTI for detection of small size mimicking tumor in the tissue phantom with subsurface vascular structures.

TFR in India: Mission Parivar Vikas- Health Ministry Launches Two New Contraceptives

  • The total fertility rate of India stands at 2.2 as of 2017.

  • Majority of Indian states fertility rate has fallen well below the replacement level of 2.1.

  • High focus districts are in 7 states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, and Assam.

  • TFR is calculated as: TFR=ASFR (for single year age groups)

  • TFR of 2.1 children per woman is called Replacement-level fertility.

  • Ministry of Health and Family Welfare launched two new free contraceptives Antara and Chayya in 10 states.

Father of Nephrology in India- Dr. Kirpal Chugh Passes at 85

  • Dr. Kirpal Singh Chugh, widely regarded as the “father of nephrology in India” and Padma Shri (2000) award, passed away at 85.

  • He belonged to Patti in Tarn Taran.

  • He was professor emeritus and former head of Nephrology Department at PGIMER, Chandigarh.

First Advanced Homoeopathy Research Lab

  • Kolkata’s Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy (RRIH): India has its first virology laboratory to develop homoeopathy drugs against diseases such as H1N1 (swine flu), dengue, chikungunya.

  • Laboratory recognized by Calcutta University to undertake research work of the PhD students in homoeopathy.

Measures Boosting Cadaver Donation Program

  • Government is implementing the National Organ Transplant Programme (NOTP) to promote organ donation across India.

  • Growth in the transplants can be observed from the table below:

Table contain shows the Growth in the transplants

Table contain shows the Growth in the transplants

Year

Kidney

Liver

Heart

Lung

Pancreas

2017

3848

1047

48

02

05

Cadaveric donation comprises organ donation:

  • Taking organs (heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, pancreas) from brain dead people

  • Issue donation- taking tissues (skin, corneas, tendons, bone) from brain dead as well as heart dead people.

  • Organ transplant procedure from brain dead patients is beyond the scope of the pathologist, it is done by surgeons in the operating theatre.

DASTAK Campaign of UP Government in Association with UNICEF

  • State government of Uttar Pradesh in association with UNICEF launched a massive door-to-door campaign DASTAK.

  • Campaign launched to eradicate deadly Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and Japanese Encephalitis (JE) disease in the state.

  • The war cry of DASTAK is ‘Darwaja Khatkhatao, AES aur JE ko bhagao’.

  • CDS, sanitary kits etc. were also launched for the patients affected with AES and JE.

  • DASTAK is a part of the comprehensive Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) strategy embraced by the state government to beat encephalitis.

National Programme for Control of Viral Hepatitis: Free Treatment for Hepatitis C

  • Health ministry is set to roll out a National Programme for Control of Viral Hepatitis from 2018 - 19 with budget of Rs. 600 crore for the next 3 years.

  • The focus will be on anti-viral treatment of Hepatitis C.

  • It will be provided free at all government health set-ups.

  • Health Ministry will screening vulnerable groups, including drug users and people who underwent surgeries and blood transfusion before 2002.

  • Hepatitis C is infectious disease caused by blood-borne hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.

HIV and AIDS and STI 2017 - 24: Test and Treat Policy for HIV Patients

  • Test and Treat Policy for HIV patients’ launched in April 2017 providing treatment to all “people living with HIV (PLHIV) “.

  • PLHIV to be treated with Antiretro Viral Therapy regardless of CD4 count, clinical stage, age, or population.

  • National Strategic Plan for HIV and AIDS and STI 2017 - 24 approved in June 2017.

  • It includes:

  • Accelerating HIV prevention in key population and ‘at risk group’.

  • Expanding quality assured HIV testing with universal access to comprehensive HIV care.

  • Elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV and syphilis.

  • Addressing the critical enablers in HIV programming

  • Restructuring the strategic information system to be efficient and patient-centric.

Drug Pricing in India: Committee to Make Drugs More Affordable

  • Drug prices in India controlled using Drugs (Prices Control) Order (DPCO) - an order under Section 3 of the Essential Commodities Act, 1955.

  • Empowering government to fix and regulate the prices of essential bulk drugs and their formulations.

  • NPPA (National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority), controls and regulates the prices of Pharmaceutical drugs in India.

  • NPPA has limited authority to fix, review and justify pharmaceutical prices under DPCO, 1995.

  • NPPA keeps the prices of decontrolled drugs at reasonable level.

Smoking E-Cigarettes is Injurious to Health

  • Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigs, have been on the market in the US since 2008.

  • It has gained wider use in recent years.

  • The handheld devices deliver not only addictive and harmful nicotine.

  • But, it can be loaded with toxic chemicals such as lead, diacetyl and nickel.

  • E-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that heat a liquid usually containing nicotine mixed with the chemicals propylene glycol and glycerin.

  • Often flavorings ranging from bubble gum to watermelon - into a vapor those users can inhale.

4th National Summit on Good, Replicable Practices and Innovations in Public Health Care Systems

  • National Summit on Good, Replicable Practices, and Innovations in Public Health Care Systems is an important national summit of hospital management.

  • Theme for this year: Meeting Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

  • Another important focus was National Health Policy, 2017 which commits:

    • to comprehensive primary healthcare

    • effective regulatory framework

    • best infrastructure

  • States to learn from the effective endeavors to address the challenges in healthcare delivery.

  • Platform to share experiences and collectively strategize on how to improve health services in India Drawing roadmap for meeting goals of SDGs and National Health Policy, 2017.

National Biopharma Mission

  • It is an Industry-Academia Collaborative for Accelerating Discovery Research to Early Development for Biopharmaceuticals.

  • Program under Innovate in India (i3) with investment of USD 250 million with USD 125 million loans from World Bank to create an enabling ecosystem promoting entrepreneurship and indigenous manufacturing.

  • Indian biopharmaceutical industry 10 to 15 years behind their counterparts in developed countries.

  • India has only 2.8 % share in the global biopharmaceutical market. Elevate this to 5%.

34 Global Technology Firms Sign Cybersecurity Tech Accord

  • 34 leading global technology firms including Facebook, Microsoft, HP, ARM, Cisco, and Oracle have signed Cybersecurity Tech Accord to work together on cybersecurity issues.

  • Four Principles of Cybersecurity Tech Accord:

    • Protect users and customers everywhere

    • Oppose cyber-attacks on innocent citizens and enterprises

    • Empower users, customers and developers to strengthen cybersecurity.

    • Partner with each other and like-minded groups to enhance cybersecurity.

NITI Aayog Partners with 6 States to Transform Health & Education Sector

  • NITI (National Institution for Transforming India) Aayog announced partnership with 3 states.

  • Each to radically transform their Health and Education sectors under its Sustainable Action for Transforming Human Capital (SATH) initiative.

  • Shortlisted states for transforming their health sector are Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Karnataka.

  • Selected states for transforming their education sector are Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha.

Scientists Develop Injectable Tissue Bandage to Repair Heart

  • Scientists from the University of Toronto, Canada developed an injectable tissue bandage dubbed as AngioChip, smaller than a postage stamp that can repair damaged hearts.

  • AngioChip is tiny patch of heart tissue with its own blood vessels and heart cells beating with a regular rhythm.

  • It is made out of the biocompatible, biodegradable polymer.

  • Repairing heart tissue destroyed by a heart attack or medical condition with regenerative cells usually requires invasive open-heart surgery.

  • Generally poses more risks than potential benefits.

Loading video•••

Expected Questions on Health & Defence 2018 (In Hindi)

In this session we will cover Expected Questions on Health & Defence 2018

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: June 10, 2018

Health, Defense

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2019 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, NTA-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.