Fact Box: First National Strategic Plan for Malaria Elimination (Important) (Download PDF)

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The Union Health Ministry and Family Welfare unveiled India’s first National Strategic Plan (NSP) for Malaria Elimination (2017 - 22) with elimination deadline set at 2027, three years ahead of the global deadline.

Image of Annual Parasite Incidence

Image of Annual Parasite Incidence

Image of Annual Parasite Incidence

  • The NSP is based on 2016 National Framework for Malaria Elimination framed with support of WHO’s Global Technical Strategy for Malaria, 2016 - 2030.
  • The NSP is a year wise roadmap for malaria elimination across the country.
  • Aims to achieve universal case detection and treatment services in malaria endemic districts
  • Ensure 100 % diagnosis of all suspected cases, and full treatment of all confirmed cases.
  • Seeks to maintain a malaria-free status for areas where transmission has been interrupted.

Categorization of Districts

Divides country into four categories: 0 to 3 based on their annual parasite incidence (API)

  • Category Zero has 75 districts having of no API of malaria for the last three years.
  • Category 1 covers 448 districts with API is less than 1 per 1, 000 population.
  • Category 2 covers 48 districts, with API one and above, but less than 2 per 1, 000 population.
  • Category 3 covers 107 districts, with API two and above per 1, 000 population.

The majority of malaria reporting districts are in India’s eastern and central parts (see map above).

  • Six states - Odisha (40%), Jharkhand (20%), Chhattisgarh (20%), Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram (5 - 7%) report most of the malaria cases in India.
  • These states, along with tribal areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra account for 90 % of India’s malaria burden.

Targets

  • Eliminate malaria (zero indigenous cases) in all Category 1 and 2 districts by 2022.
  • Bring remaining districts under a pre-elimination and elimination programme by 2022.

Components

Based on recommendations WHO:

  • Diagnosis and case management
  • Surveillance and epidemic response
  • Prevention - integrated vector management
  • Crosscutting interventions including communication, advocacy, R&D and other initiatives.

Funding

Allocated around Rs. 10, 653.16 crore over a period of five years (2017 - 2022) collected from government sources, international donors, and the corporate sector as part of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Significance of NSP

  • First roadmap for malaria elimination in the country. Prior effort was to “control” malaria under the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDC).
  • Provides detailed strategy with operational guidelines for all states towards set targets
  • Provides detailed breakdown of annual budgetary requirements over five years.

Malaria as a Vector Borne Diseases

  • Malaria is a vector borne disease caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the Plasmodium type.
  • Commonly transmitted by an infected female Anopheles mosquito
  • India accounts for 89 % of the incidence of malaria in the South-East Asia region.
  • Malaria in India caused by parasite Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), found more in the forest areas and Plasmodium Vivax (Pv), more common in the plains.
  • Most cases concentrated in tribal and remote areas

What Are Vector Borne Diseases?

Vector-borne diseases are transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod species, such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomine bugs, sandflies, and blackflies. Arthropod vectors are cold-blooded (ectothermic) and thus especially sensitive to climatic factors. Examples include dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Lyme disease, and malaria

- Published/Last Modified on: September 6, 2017

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