Food for All (Yojana December 2020) (Download PDF)

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Food for All

  • Central role of providing food security, reducing poverty, and generating employment.
  • GDP has increased 4.5 times and per capita consumption has increased 3 times.

FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) of the United Nations

  • Estimates in The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World, 2020 report.
  • 189.2 million people i.e.. , is 14 % of the population are undernourished in India.

The NHM envisages achievement of universal access to equitable, affordable, and quality healthcare services that are accountable and responsive to be a major public health problem in the country.

Hunger

Usually understood to refer to the distress associated with a lack of sufficient calories.

Undernutrition

It is result of inadequate intake of food in terms of either quantity of quality, poor utilization of nutrients due to infections or other illnesses or a combination of these factors.

These are caused by:

  • Household food insecurity.
  • Inadequate maternal health or childcare practices.
  • Inadequate access to healthcare services.
  • Sate Water and Sanitation.

Goes beyond calories and signifies deficiencies in any or all the following:

  • Energy
  • Protein
  • Essential Vitamins and Minerals.

Malnutrition

  • Refers more broadly to both undernutrition (problems caused by deficiencies) and overnutrition (problems caused by unbalanced diets, such as consuming too many calories in relation to requirements with or without low intake of micronutrient-rich- foods) .
  • Global Hunger Index (GHI) Report:
    • Hunger refers to the index based on four component indicators.
    • Component indicators reflect deficiencies in calories as well as in micronutrients.
  • The government of India is strongly committed to achieving the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) .
  • The current nutrition situation in India justifies its high-level national commitment with strong policy initiatives based on evidence-informed interventions towards combating all forms of malnutrition in the country.

Computation of Global Hunger Index (GHI)

  • GHI scores are calculated using a three-step process that draws on available data from various sources.
  • To capture the multidimensional nature of hunger.
  • First for each country values are determined for three dimensions namely inadequate food supply, child undernutrition and child mortality rate with indicators of undernourishment for the first dimension, wasting and shunting for the second dimension and under 5 mortality rates for the third dimension:
  • Undernourishment: The share of the population that is under-nourished (PUN) .
  • Child Wasting: The share of children under the age of five who are wasted (CWA) .
  • Child Stunting: The share of children under the age of five who are stunted.
  • Child Mortality: The mortality rate of children under the age of five (CM) .
  • Second each of the four component indicators is given a standardized score on a 100-point scale based on the highest observed level for the indicator on a global scale in recent decades.
  • Third standardized scores are aggregated to calculate the GHI score for each country with each of the three dimensions given equal weight.

Standardization of the component indicators is as follows:

Standardized ; Standardized Standardized and Standardized

The component indicators are then aggregated as:

Low Hunger

Values less than 10.

Serious Hunger

Values from 20 to 34.9.

Alarming

Valued from 35 to 49.9.

Extremely Alarming

Values of 50 or more.

India՚s Progress in GHI

  • India was ranked at 102 out of 117 countries in the GHI report 2019.
  • According to the Global Hunger Index 2020 Report, India ranked 94 with a Global Hunger Index of 27.2.
India՚s Progress in GHI
YearsGlobal Hunger Index (GHI)
199048.1
199542.3
200038.2
200538.5
201032.2
201529
201831.1
201930.3
202027.2

Realizing the Vision of Malnutrition Free India

  • Aim to reduce malnutrition in a phased manner through the life cycle concept by adopting a synergized and result-oriented approach.
  • Will ensure mechanisms for timely service delivery & a robust monitoring as well as intervention infrastructure.
  • To bring down stunting of children in age group of 0 - 6 years from 38.4 % to 25 % by 2022.
  • Prevalence of stunting, wasting and underweight among children reduced from the levels reported by NFHS-4.

To achieve improvement in nutritional status in a time bound manner with fixed targets as under:

Realizing the Vision of Malnutrition Free India
ObjectiveTarget to prevent &/or to reduce by
Prevent & reduce stunting in children (0 - 6 years)6 % @ 2 % p. a.
Prevent & reduce under-nutrition (underweight prevalence) in children (0 - 6 years)6 % @ 2 % p. a.
Reduce the prevalence of anemia among young children (6 - 59 months)9 % @ 3 % p. a.
Reduce the prevalence of anemia among Women & Adolescent Girls in age group9 % @ 3 % p. a.
Reduce Low Birth Weight (LBW)6 % @ 2 % p. a.

Prevalence of Malnutrition in India-Stunting, Wasting and Underweight Children

  • A few the most populous states including Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh had a high (37 - 42 %) stunting prevalence. High prevalence of wasting (>= 20 %) states included Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Jharkhand.
  • The states with the highest prevalence (>= 39 %) of underweight were Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, and Jharkhand.
  • The first 1000 days from conception to age two years is considered the most important period to intervene to prevent the lifelong damage caused by malnutrition.

SDG India Index & Dashboard 2019 - 20

  • Brought out by NITI Aayog which measures the progress achieved and distance to be covered by the States/UTs in their journey towards meeting the targets.
  • Using the SDG India Index covering 16 out of 17 SDGs.

Two of the most important SDGs:

  • SDG 1. No Poverty
  • SDG 2. Zero Hunger

SDG 2: Zero Hunger

  • To measure India՚s performance towards the Goal of Zero Hunger.
  • Seven national-level indicators have been identified which capture 3 out of the 8 SDG targets for 2030 outlined under.

The indicators of SDG 2 taken are:

  • Ratio of rural households covered under public distribution system (PDS) to rural households where monthly income of highest earning member is less than ₹ 5,000.
  • Percentage of children under age 5 years who are stunted.
  • Percentage of pregnant women aged 15 - 49 years who are anemic.
  • Percentage of children aged 6 - 59 months who are anemic (Hb < 11.0 g/dl) .
  • Percentage of children aged 0 - 4 years who are underweight.
  • Rice, wheat, and coarse cereals produced annually per unit area (Kg/Ha) .
  • Gross Value Added in Agriculture per worker.
SDG Index Score for Goal 2 (States and UTs)
  • Ranges between 22 and 76 for States and between 12 and 73 for UTs.
  • Goa and Chandigarh are the top performing among States and Union Territories respectively.
  • Seven States and two UTs bagged a position in the category of Front Runners (with index score higher than/equal to 65) .
  • Twenty States and three UTs fell behind in the Aspirants category (with Index score less than 50) .

Food and Nutrition Security

  • Implementation of a revamped Public Distribution System under The National Food Security Act (NFSA) , 2013.
  • Under the “Antyodaya Anna Yojana” (AAY) , the poorest from amongst the Below Poverty Line families are entitled to 35 kg of food grains per month at more subsidized rates.
  • The NFSA adopts a life cycle approach making special provisions for ensuring food security of pregnant women, lactating mothers, and children from 6 months to 6 years.
  • 17.8 million pregnant women and lactating mothers are provided access to nutritious food as on March 31,2019.
  • Mid-day meal (MDM) scheme provides nutritious cooked mid-day meal with the calorie range of 450 - 700 to over 120 million children at primary and upper primary levels.

The National Nutrition Mission (Poshan Abhiyaan)

  • Overarching scheme for Holistic Nourishment.
  • Overall budget of ₹ 9046 for 3 years.
  • To ensure the holistic approach, all 36 States/UTs and districts covered.
  • Over 10 crore people to be benefitted, scheme extended up to 31st March, 2021.
  • A multi-ministerial convergence mission.
  • Launched in 2018 to make a concerted attack on under-nutrition, stunting and anemia.
  • This mission targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anemia (among young children, women, and adolescent girls) and low birth weight by 2 % , 2 % , 3 % and 2 % per annum respectively.
  • It targets to bring down stunting among children in the age group 0 - 6 years from 38.4 % to 25 % by 2022.

Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKsY)

  • Focuses on improved water efficiency with the motto of “Har Khet ko Paani: and Per drop more crop.”
  • Provides end-to-end solutions in the irrigation supply chain, viz. water sources, distribution network and farm-level applications.

Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)

  • Provides better insurance coverage and agricultural credit at a reduced rate of 4 % p. a. to farmers.
  • The increase of the minimum support prices for all kharif and rabi crops at least by 150 % of the cost of production has also shored up farmers՚ income.

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Scheme

Initiated to extend the payment of INR 6,000 per year to every farmer in the country proving a boost to their income.

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Sampada Yojana

  • Financing of mega food parks.
  • Infrastructure of agro-processing clusters.
  • Integrated cold chain
  • Value addition infrastructure.

Conclusion

  • Priority now is to return attention to agriculture and its central role of providing food security, reducing poverty, and generating employment.
  • India is likely to be the most populous country on this planet by 2030 with 1.6 billion people.
  • Ensuring food and nutrition security will become a bigger challenge unless the Government of India and the State Governments particularly of the most populous States pursue in right earnest population stabilization programmes.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 13, 2021

Health, Agriculture/Agro Industries, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Yojana

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