GsAT-7A Launch - GsLV-F11 and IsRO-Chandrayaan-2 Mission (Download PDF)

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GSAT-7A with GSLV-F11 (Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicles) . Launched by ISRO.


  • Close to the intended orbit- GSLV-F11 injected GSAT-7A into a Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) .
  • An advanced communication satellite.
  • A Gregorian Antenna and other new technologies.
  • Also the 39th Indian Communication Satellite of ISRO.

Key Feature

  • Weighs 2,250 kg.
  • Heaviest satellite launched by GSLV-Mk-II.
  • Include six successive flights since 2014.

IsRO-Chandrayaan-2 Mission

  • Launch announcement date (July 15,2019) .
  • Chandrayaan-1 was the predecessor of Chandrayaan-2.
  • Chandrayaan-1 was an Orbiter mission which was sent way back in 2008.
  • Chandrayaan-2 was supposed to be a collaborative mission with the Russian space agency, Roskosmos.
  • Russians withdrew from the missions.
  • ISRO had to design, develop and build the lander on its own.

Chandrayaan-2՚s Features

  • India՚s first lander mission.
  • Consists of an Orbiter, Lander and Rover, all equipped with scientific instruments to study the moon.


  • ISRO named the Lander module as Vikram after Vikram Sarabhai
  • The 1471-kg lander will remain stationary even after touching down on the moon՚s surface.
  • Will carry three instruments to study mainly the moon՚s atmosphere.
  • Looking out for seismic activity on lunar surface.


  • Is a 6-wheeled, Artificial Intelligence-powered and solar-powered vehicle.
  • Named as Pragyan meaning wisdom.
  • Equipped with two instruments.
  • Would slowly crawl on the surface.
  • Primary objective is to study the composition of the moon՚s surface near the landing site.
  • Also help in the determining the abundance of different elements on the moon՚s surface.


  • Controlling speed as it approaches the surface.
  • For smooth landing the speed of the Lander just ahead of touchdown should be 1 m/s (3.6 km/h) or less.
  • Due to lack of air- Instruments cannot make use of parachute-like technologies.


  • Completely unexplored territory.
  • Offers great scientific opportunity for the mission to discover something new.
  • Moon՚s South Pole holds the possibility of the presence of water.
  • South Pole area is also supposed to have ancient rocks and craters.
  • Contain clues to the fossil records of early solar system.

- Published/Last Modified on: May 7, 2021


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