Gender Issues Muslim Women Bill, SDG, Global Gender Gap (Download PDF)

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Muslim Women Bill, 2017

The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017. Passed both In the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Key Changes

  • All declaration of talaq including in written or electronic form to be void.
  • Talaq-e-biddat.
  • Any other similar form of talaq pronounced by a Muslim man.
  • Resulting in instant and irrevocable divorce.
  • Declaration of talaq a cognizable offence.
  • Could attract up to 3 years imprisonment with a fine.

Cognizable Offence

  • The married woman (against whom talaq has been declared) .
  • Any person related to her by blood or marriage.
  • The Magistrate may grant bail to the accused.
  • The bail may be granted only after hearing the woman.
  • For release of the accuse the Magistrate has to be satisfied that there are reasonable grounds.

Compounding

  • By the Magistrate upon the request of the woman.
  • Refers to the procedure where the two sides agree to stop legal proceedings.
  • For settling the dispute.
  • Terms and conditions of the compounding of the offence will be determined by the Magistrate.
  • Subsistence allowance from the husband for herself and for her dependent children.
  • Magistrate will decide the amount of the allowance.
  • The custody of the minor children will be entitled by the woman.

Concerns

  • A civil contract should carry a criminal penalty.
  • Paying allowance to a woman who is incarcerated for 3 years and with less chance to earn a livelihood is illogical.
  • The new bill has reduced the original bill (non-bailable) to a bailable offence.

SDG Gender Index – Equal Measures 2030

  • A new index to measure global gender equality.
  • Developed by Equal Measures 2030.
  • Accounts for 14 out of 17 SDGs (sustainable development goals.

A joint effort of regional and global organisations including:

  • African Women՚s Development and Communication Network.
  • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Asian-Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women.
  • International Women՚s Health Coalition.

Key Findings

  • The global average score of the 129 countries (with 95 % of the world՚s girls and women) is 65.7.
  • Girls and women are living in countries with poor trade- Nearly 1.4 billion
  • “Very poor” (59 and below) or “poor” score (60 - 69) - 2.8 billion girls and women.
  • “Good” gender equality score (80 - 89) - Just 8 % of the world՚s population of girls and women.
  • An “excellent” overall score of 90 or above- No country achieved.

India՚s Performance

  • 95th among 129 countries.

Highest goal scores:

  • Health (79.9)
  • Hunger & nutrition (76.2)
  • Energy (71.8)

Lowest goal scores are on partnerships:

  • 18.3, in the bottom 10 countries.
  • Industry, infrastructure and innovation (38.1) .
  • Climate (43.4) .
  • India has a score of 18.2 in terms of seats held by women in the Supreme Court.

Global Gender Gap Report 2018

  • Recently released by the World Economic Forum.
  • India has been ranked 108th in World Economic Forum (WEF) gender gap index.
  • For the first time in 2018 India closed its tertiary education enrolment gender gap.
  • Done well on the political empowerment of women ranking 20th.

Shortfalls

  • Gender gaps worsened for India in terms of health and survival, economic participation and opportunity.
  • Out of 149 countries India ranked 142 in the economic opportunity and participation subindex.
  • On health and survival index India continues to rank third-lowest in the world.
  • Second-largest artificial intelligence (AI) workforce.
  • One of the largest AI gender gaps, with only 22 % of roles filled by women.

Global Scenario

  • Iceland topped globally (10th consecutive year) having closed more than 85 % of its overall gender gap.
  • The top slot was dominated by the Nordic countries with Norway, Sweden and Finland in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th places respectively.
  • Nicaragua, Rwanda, New Zealand, the Philippines, Ireland and Namibia were among the other top countries.
  • India has closed 66 % gap.
  • Overall the world has closed 68 % of its gender gap.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 9, 2020

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