Geography (16 to 28 February 2019) (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for CLAT is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

India՚s Polar Science Research: The government of India in 2018 renamed the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) , Goa to National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research (NCPOR) , Goa. The melting sea ice has been impacting even the monsoons in India for years. Due to the opportunities and challenges posed by the climate change India is refocussing its priorities to the other pole the Arctic and the Himalayas. The Arctic consists of the Arctic Ocean, adjacent seas, and parts of Alaska (United States) , Finland, Greenland (Denmark) , Iceland, Northern Canada, Norway, Russia and Sweden. India also holds membership in the Council of Managers of National Antarctic Programmes (COMNAP) , which works on the best practices and sharing of information on Antarctic Logistics and Operations.

  • India also has an observer at the Arctic Council - a forum of countries that decides on managing the region՚s resources and popular livelihood.
  • India officially acceded to the Antarctic Treaty System on 1st August 1983. Also it became the fifteenth Consultative Member of the Antarctic Treaty on 12 September 1983.
India՚s Polar Science Research

NCPOR (National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research)

  • NCPOR is India՚s premier institute mandated to cover scientific studies in all the three poles.
  • It is one of the few institutes in the world to have bi-polar presence.
  • Also it is probably the only one that covers the third pole – Himalaya and the world oceans in addition to Arctic and Antarctic.
  • The first Indian expedition to Antarctica was launched from National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) , Goa.
  • NCPOR recently entered the field of cryosphere study in the Himalaya and established a Research Station at the base of a glacier.
  • The National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, (NCPOR) formerly known as the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) is an Indian research and development institution, situated in Vasco, Goa.
National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research

Antarctic Lake Sediments

  • In the last three million years, the sea-level change has gone higher by 5m than at present when global temperatures were warmer by than that which existed during the pre-industrial level.
  • As per the climate data project the global average temperature would increase by.
  • With a small rise in the sea-level millions of Indians would be displaced.
  • The rise in sea-level is mainly due to the melting of ice locked in Greenland and in Antarctica.
  • Antarctica and Greenland together hold about 75 per cent of the world՚s freshwater that can contribute to a 6 m rise in sea-level with a rise in temperature.
  • The sea-level would rise by 60 m leading to catastrophic events around the globe incase all the ice melts in the Polar regions.
Antarctic Lake Sediments
Lake Vostok Antarctic Lake Sediments

Himalayan Glaciers

  • The Himalayan region also known as the third pole of the world contains the largest reservoir of fresh water outside the north and south Poles.
  • The Himalayan glaciers influence the runoff regime of major river systems such as the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra, releasing water in the warm summer months in the Karakoram and western Himalaya.
  • According to the report released by International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) on Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) Region even the most ambitious goal set by the Paris Agreement to limit global warming would lead to a 2.1 spike in temperature in the Hindu Kush Region, resulting in melting of one-third of the region՚s glaciers and thus potentially destabilizing Asia՚s rivers.
  • The Melting Glaciers will increase river flows from 2050 to 2060, pushing up the risk of high altitude lakes and busting the banks thereby engulfing communities.
  • Changing climate is threatening the health of Himalayan glaciers and potentially increasing hazards like glacier lake outburst flood, avalanches and landslides.
  • Glacial Melting is also likely to cause global sea levels to rise, threatening already endangered species such as the Snow Leopard and Tiger and dramatically change the roof of the world.
Major Rivers Fed by Himalayan Glaciers

India and the Arctic

  • it՚s been nearly nine decades since India signed the ‘Treaty between Norway, US, Denmark, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Ireland and the British overseas Dominions and Sweden concerning Spitsbergen’ also called the ‘Svalbard Treaty’ in February 1920 in Paris.
  • India՚s interests in the Arctic region include scientific, environmental, commercial as well as strategic.
  • India became an Observer at the Arctic Council, which coordinates policy on the Arctic.
  • The Arctic Council has eight states as members, the five coastal states, Canada, Russia, the U. S. , Norway and Denmark (through Greenland) and Sweden, Iceland and Finland.
A New Energy Front India and the Arctic
  • India had to sign an agreement on becoming an Observer at the Arctic Council
  • Recognise the sovereign rights of Arctic states.
  • Recognise that the Law of the Sea and the U. N. Convention on the Law of the Sea constitute the legal basis and the legal framework within which the Arctic will be managed.
  • Respect indigenous peoples, local cultures and traditions.
  • Be able to contribute to the work of the Arctic Council.
  • Indian researchers have therefore, initiated the measurement of aerosol properties, black carbon and precipitation in the Arctic and glacier mass balance studies.

Know the MCQs

  • NCPOR or The National Centre for Polar and Ocean Research, (NCPOR) formerly known as the National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR) is India՚s only Polar research institute.
  • Recently the scientists recovered sediment core from the Stepped Lake using a specially built platform at the Larsemann Hills in Antarctica.
  • Chandra Taal Lake (a lake in the Spiti part of the Lahul and Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh, India) along the Chandra River came in news recently as NCPOR set up several water level recorders.
  • At Sutri Dhaka (one of the six Himalayan glaciers) , the high-altitude glaciological research station Himansh was set up to help researchers digitize glacier motion and study snow cover variation (above) . Setting up high altitude automatic weather station to collect meteorological parameters.
  • Himadri is India՚s first Arctic station in Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, Norway.

- Published/Last Modified on: December 25, 2019

Science/Technology, Policy/Governance, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Geography

Developed by: