Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (Download PDF)

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Glacial Lake Outburst Floods

  • A sudden release of water from a lake.

  • Also known as GLOF.

  • This is being fed by glacier melt that has formed at the side, in front, within, beneath or on the surface of a glacier.

  • Nearly 200 glacial lakes surround the Himalayan states, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir.

Rapidly Expanding Glacial Lakes

Rapidly Expanding Glacial Lakes


  • Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris.

  • In simple terms moraines can be defined as accumulations of dirt and rocks that have fallen onto the glacier surface.

  • Occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth.

  • In a nut shell they play a crucial role in Glacial formation.

Different Types of Moraines

Different Types of Moraines

Lateral Moraines

  • Parallel ridges of debris.

  • These get deposited along the sides of a glacier.

  • They also protect the ice under them from the elements.

  • With the advancement and retreats multiple lateral moraines may develop.

Ground Moraines

  • Till-covered areas with irregular topography.

  • No ridges.

  • Gets accumulated at the base of the ice.

  • May also get deposited as the glacier retreats.

  • May be modified into drumlins by the overriding ice.

  • A drumlin is an elongated hill in the shape of an inverted spoon or half-buried egg.

Rogen Moraines

  • Also known as ribbed moraines.

  • A type of basal moraines.

  • These moraines have been named after Lake Rogen due to the landform’s type locality.

  • They look like tiger stripes on aerial photographs because of the depressions between the ribs that are sometimes filled with water.

Terminal Moraines

  • Ridges of unconsolidated debris.

  • Deposited at the snout or end of the glacier.

  • Mark the maximum advance of the glacier.

  • These moraines may get destroyed by postglacial erosion.

Recessional Moraines

  • Small ridges left as a glacier pauses during its retreat.

  • Often observed as a series of transverse ridges running across a valley.

  • Perpendicular to the lateral moraines.

  • Created during temporary halts in a glacier’s retreat.

Medial Moraine

  • A ridge of moraine that runs down the center of a valley floor.

  • Forms when two glaciers meet.

  • The debris on the edges of the adjacent valley sides join.

  • Carried on top of the enlarged glacier.

Supraglacial Moraines

  • Created by debris accumulated on top of glacial ice.

  • Accumulation of debris due to ice flow.

Washboard Moraines

  • Also known as minor or corrugated moraines.

  • Low-amplitude geomorphic features caused by glaciers.

  • It resembles a washboard from the air.

Veiki Moraine

  • A kind of hummocky moraine.

  • Forms irregular landscapes of ponds and plateaus surrounded by banks.

  • Is common in northern Sweden and parts of Canada.

- Published/Last Modified on: July 2, 2020


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