Lateral Entry, Anti-Surveillance Laws, NPE (Language), Strengthening Civil Societies (Download PDF)

Doorsteptutor material for CLAT is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

Launch of lateral entry of joint secretaries by the Union government. A measure of reform in bureaucracy.

Role of IAs Officers in Governance

  • Selected through the Civil Services Examination (CSE) conducted by the UPSC.
  • IAS officer՚s explicit approval is required for functioning of the state machinery from the appointment of employees to disbursement of funds.
  • An IAS officer is the head of the department whose typical term is of three years.
  • The secretary is responsible for the smooth functioning of the entire department.
  • The main task of the secretary is to

Functioning Includes

  • The day-to-day running
  • Effecting improvements in its functioning and outcomes
  • Making suitable suggestions to the minister

Concerns with the Role of Secretaries

  • To initiate a disciplinary action against a particular officer, state requires the permission of the central government.
  • There is no guarantee that the secretary has the required training, background or expertise in enterprise management.

Measures Need to be Taken

  • Creation of a new section called “Analysis and Research (AR) ” by every government.
  • This new section is to be led by an officer at the level of a deputy secretary.
  • The section needs to be adequately staffed at the division and district level and have its own guaranteed funding.
  • Deputy Secretary՚s main task is to prepare and maintain a detailed documentation of the working procedures within the department.
  • Students, researchers, funding agencies and industry will be able to identify problem areas and come forward with possible approaches to bring improvements in the sector.

Need for Anti-Surveillance Laws

  • To create a centralized database of fingerprints as it is recommended by the Home Ministry.
  • Aims at linking all police stations and state fingerprint databases across India to CCTNS.
  • Access to the Unique Identification Authority of India՚s (UIDAI) biometric database by the MHA.
  • Contains the data for over one billion citizens.

SEBI ′ Powers

  • Provides for the market regulator to wiretap and record phone calls.
  • Order to enhance SEBI՚s ability to monitor insider trading.
  • Since the Netra (Network Traffic Analysis) system for internet monitoring has been shielded from the Right to Information Act owing to security implications its exact capabilities are unknown.
  • Creation of a social media monitoring hub.
  • To enable “360-degree monitoring” of the social media activity of the internet users.
  • The Srikrishna Committee gave the draft legislation of the Personal Data Bill 2018.
  • Wide powers given to the government to collect and process data in order to exercise the functions of the state.


  • Apprehensions of India becoming a surveillance state.
  • Unchecked and growing powers to spy on citizens.
  • The SC՚s judgment recognising the right to privacy as a fundamental right is being undermined in practice.
  • Need for specific laws limiting the surveillance powers of governments.
  • The surveillance systems have become even more invasive with the legal checks being more crucial with technological advancements.

Draft National Education Policy 2019

  • Submitted by the Committee led by the Chairman Dr. Kasturirangan on education policy.
  • To meet the contemporary and futuristic needs of India՚s large youth population.
  • To meet the changing dynamics of the requirements in terms of quality education, innovation and research.
  • Equipping students with the necessary skills and knowledge.
  • Focus on eliminating the shortage of manpower in science, technology, academics and industry.

The Draft Policy is Built on the Foundational Pillars of

  • Access
  • Equity
  • Quality
  • Affordability
  • Accountability

Key Changes Proposed

  • Ministry
  • Curriculum
  • RTE Act
  • Teacher education
  • Higher education
  • Institution
  • Language

Draft NEP-Language Controversy

  • Protest against the three language formula.
  • The controversial provision was thus revised by Dr. Kasturirangan-led committee.

Old and New Proposals

  • Students willing to change one of the three languages they are studying may do so in Grade 6.
  • As long as the study of 3 languages by students in the Hindi-speaking states would continue to include Hindi and English as one of the modern Indian languages from other parts of India.

Study of languages by students in the non-Hindi-speaking states:

  • The regional language
  • Hindi
  • English
  • As per the new change students who wish to change one or more of the 3 languages they are studying may do so in Grade 6 or Grade 7.
  • Demonstrating proficiency in three languages (one language at the literature level) .
  • As per the modular Board Examinations held during the secondary school level.

Hindi՚s Official Position

  • Heated exchanges over the use and scope of Hindi in the Constituent Assembly.
  • As per the Article 343 of the Constitution Hindi has been prescribed as the written in Devanagari script.

Recommendations of the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights

  • Hindustani, written either in Devanagari or the Persian script at the option of the citizen, shall, as the national language, be the first official language of the Union.
  • English shall be the second official language for such period as the Union may, by law, determine.
  • The Constitution of India did not declare Hindi as the ′ national language.
  • Hindi was accorded the status of ‘official language’ along with English.

Strengthening Civil Societies

  • Considerable pressure on governments by the civil societies.
  • To change laws and re-allocate public resources.
  • Formation of the civil society movements to advocate for causes and bring about change in established systems.

Role of the Civil Societies in Governance

  • Providing law, order and stability, delivering public services and relief and catalyzing the development of the society and the economy are the three roles which governments are expected to perform.
  • The civil society organizations need appropriate organizational strategies just like political parties and governments need organizational structures.
  • The not-for profit civil society organizations can provide public services, such as education and healthcare along with the delivery of charitable relief to the people in distress.

Education Ecosystem for the 4ThIndustrial Revolution

  • To boost advanced learning in new-age technologies.
  • India՚s higher education sector needs to be capitalized with the fourth industrial revolution in the making.

4ThIndustrial Revolution

  • Involves the emerging technologies.
  • Merging together to change the dynamics of how industries operate.
  • These include artificial intelligence, machine learning, Internet of Things (IoT) , 3D printing, biotechnology and 5G.

Challenge Before India

  • World՚s largest population of young people.
  • Needs to more job to meet the challenges in the labour market by 2030.
  • Structural and regulatory challenges in the higher education sector.
  • Inadequacy of curriculum and trained faculty.
  • India needs to align the higher education sector with the demands of the new age.

Government՚s Initiatives

Creation of three pillars for the needed structural change

  • Autonomy
  • Ranking
  • Technical education
  • New AICTE guidelines

Lessons for India

  • India needs to catch up with the anticipated changes in its own labour market.
  • A plan of action to create a model for higher education that addresses these shifts.

State of Democracy in the World in 2018

  • Measures the state of democracy in 167 countries.

Based on 5 Parameters Which Are

  • Electoral process and pluralism
  • Civil liberties
  • Functioning of the government
  • Political participation
  • Political culture
  • Published by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which is a global team of economists, industry specialists, policy analysts and consultants.
  • Produces data, research and analysis on everything from national elections and international trade, to food security and sustainable cities.

Case with India

  • Reached its highest-ever position of 27 in 2014.
  • Previously India had slipped to 42, ranking below Latvia and South Africa.
  • There has not been any improvement in scores, which continued at 7.23 out of 10.
  • A high score of 9.17 in electoral process and pluralism.
  • There is a rise of conservative religious ideologies in the country.
  • India՚s ranking has been affected due to Vigilantism, violence, narrowing scope for dissent, threat to minorities and marginalised groups.
  • Increased attacks on the journalists.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 29, 2020

Policy/Governance, Govt. Schemes/Projects, Committees/Govt. Bodies

Developed by: