Green Propellants and Upgrade to Large Hadron Collider – CERN (Download PDF)

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Green Propellants

  • Getting developed by ISRO.
  • Use in future rocket & satellite propulsion systems.
  • An eco-friendly solid propellant.
  • To eliminate the emission of chlorinated exhaust products from rocket.
  • Propellants are based on Glycidyl Azide Polymer (GAP) as fuel and Ammonium Di-Nitramide (ADN) as oxidizer.
  • ISRO Demonstrations- Projects involving green propellant combinations such as Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) , Kerosene, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) , Liquid Methane etc.
  • Development of ISROSENE- a rocket grade version of kerosene as an alternative to conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.
  • In cryogenic upper stage of GSLV MK-III, Liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen combination has been used.

Upgrade to Large Hadron Collider - CERN

CERN is a European Organization for Nuclear Research. Findings- Higgs boson decays to fundamental particles known as bottom quarks. Testing and Understanding- Require an upgradation to the Large Hadron Collider.

Particle Study

  • To understand the fundamental constituents of matter.
  • Particles are embedded in what are known as the four fundamental interactions.
  • A unified approach known as the Standard Model (SM) has been used to describe the particles along with the interactions of the other three.
  • World՚s largest and most powerful particle accelerator- The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) .

CERN՚s Proposal

  • Discovery of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) .
  • Study of collisions of particles at different energies for detecting the Higgs boson.
  • Lasts only for one zeptosecond which is 0.000000000000000000001 seconds.
  • Massive upgrade to the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) .
  • Completion by 2026.


  • It will increase the rate of collisions.
  • Scope for studying the properties of newly discovered particle.
  • Probability of most rare events will also increase.
  • Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provides collisions at unprecedented energies.
  • LHC beam- About 2,800 bunches, each of which contains about 115 billion protons.
  • Number of Higgs bosons produced in one year may be about 5 times the number produced at present.
  • Recording about 25 times more data in the same period as for LHC running.
  • Strong magnetic fields of special kinds are to be used.
  • Formation using quadrupole magnets.
  • Installation of new equipment over 1.2 km of the 27-km LHC ring.
  • An accelerator chain is used that provides protons to the LHC.
  • To increase the effective area of overlap a slight tilt is being produced in the bunches just before the collisions.

- Published/Last Modified on: March 16, 2020


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