Health Care (DTE 1 - 15 August 2020)

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Health Care

Integrated Disease Surveillance Program

  • S form
  • P Form
  • L form


  • 1988 cholera outbreak in Delhi and the 1994 outbreak of pneumonic plague in Surat
  • Early detection wing in 2012 to fulfil the World Health Organization՚s International Health Regulations, 2005, that requires each country to assess public health emergencies of international concern within 48 hours and report them to who within the next 24 hours.
  • It was renamed Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme (IDSP) and turned into a national health programme with surveillance committees at the Centre, state as well as district levels Chamki fever or encephalitis that grips Bihar՚s Muzaffarpur district every summer since 1995 Japanese Encephalitis (JE) , a viral brain infection spread by mosquitoes, and focused on vector control and vaccination – Gorakhpur.
  • Fever caused by enter virus stretches up to 15 days as against JE which lasts about a week. In 2017, scrub typhus, a mite-borne disease, was held responsible for the illness even though symptoms were atypical Indicators - fever, cough for less than two weeks, acute flaccid paralysis in adults, Diarrhoea and jaundice and unusual death or hospitalization. Fill Suspected S form for patients.
  • At the end of every week, the hospital superintendent is expected to fill up a presumptive or P-form based on the provisional diagnosis and upload it on the IDSP website. Labs across districts also need to fill up the laboratory confirmed or L-form based on their investigation.
  • Mysterious fever outbreak in Surat – September 2019 & Odisha Malkangiri
  • At least a third of outbreaks of fevers of unknown origin in the country go undiagnosed
    • 49 % districts do not have the mandatory disease surveillance committees
    • 382 posts lie vacant in Integrated Disease Surveillance Programme
    • 29 % districts have vacancies for epidemiologists
    • 23 of the 43 emerging and re-emerging viral diseases in India are zoonotic
  • NCDC՚s 10-step outbreak handling methodology. These are: determining the outbreak; confirming the diagnosis; defining it; searching for cases; generating a hypothesis using findings; testing the hypothesis with analytical study; drawing conclusions; comparing it with established facts; communicate the findings; and then executing preventive measures
  • In 2015, a Joint Monitoring Mission set up by who and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, assessed IDSP and highlighted that it is limiting the scope of epidemiological studies of diseases by not collecting mortality data. The mission also raised concerns over the fact that IDSP looks at only 22 diseases, including malaria, dengue, Chikungunya and AES that are already monitored by the National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme.
  • One such is Chandipura virus that has emerged as a major encephalitic pathogen in India in recent years. The virus, spread by sandflies, has caused outbreaks in Andhra Pradesh (2004,2005, 2007 and 2008) , Gujarat (2005,2009 - 12) and Vidarbha region of Maharashtra (2007,2009 - 12) , according to a study published in The Open Virology Journal in August 2018.
  • Similarly, scrub typhus is being reported from newer geographies. The disease, earlier found in Himachal Pradesh, was implicated for the mysterious fevers in Uttar Pradesh՚s Gorakhpur district in 2018. Even the Nipah virus, first reported in Siliguri in 2001, had reached Kerala in 2018. Cutaneous leishmaniasis, JE, scrub typhus and leptospirosis are spreading to a much wider area at an alarming rate in the past 68 years

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