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We will be covering the important questions and topics for competitive examinations for 2017 related to Science and Technology Contemporary Topics and related policies. As per video tutorials and lectures at YouTube@Examrace

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Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS 2017

Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 1 - UPSC IAS 2017

International Solar Alliance


  • To bring solar rich 121 tropical countries located fully or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn together to tap solar energy.
  • These tropical countries are potential members of alliance and shall be united by the shared vision to bring clean, renewable solar energy within the reach of all


  • To augment solar power generation in these countries with a view to contribute global sustainable development
  • It would play important role in achieving the objective of keeping global warming below 2 degree Celsius
  • It will function from the Gurgaon based National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE).
  • Provide common platform to member countries to share collective ambitions to reduce the cost of finance and technology needed harness the solar energy
  • Alliance would pursue cooperation in training, regulatory issues, building institutions, common standards and investment among the member countries
  • International Solar Alliance Cell and World Bank Signs Declaration for Promoting Solar Energy
  • Two ISA Programmes launched –
  • Affordable finance at scale
  • Scaling solar applications for agricultural use

Biennial Update Report (BUR)

  • BUR is to provide an update to the latest National Communication submitted by the country to the UNFCCC
  • BURs are subjected to an international process known as International Consultation and Analysis (ICA)
  • It is a process that includes international scrutiny of BUR in a manner that is –non-intrusive + non -punitive + respectful of national sovereignty
  • The UNFCCC in its sixteenth session of conference of Parties (COP) had decided that the developing countries will submit updates to their national communication on biennial basis in the form of ’Biennial Update Report’
  • BUR contains national GHG inventory of India for the year 2010, prepared in accordance with the guidelines of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Inventory covers six greenhouse gases –

  • Carbon dioxide (CO2)
  • Methane (CH4)
  • Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
  • Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
  • Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
  • Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6)

Inventory covers 5 categories –

  • Energy, Industrial processes and product use (IPPU), Agriculture, waste and Land-use, Land-use, Change and Forestry (LULUCF)
  • According to BUR, India emitted 2, 136.84 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases in 2010 and Energy sector was the prime contributor to emissions with 71 % of total emissions in 2010

Energy sector includes –

  • Electricity production
  • Fuel combustion in industries
  • Transport and fugitive emissions

Other emitters includes–

  • Industrial processes and product use contributed-8 % of emission
  • Agriculture and waste sectors contributed-18 % and 3 % of emission respectively to the national GHG inventory
  • Carbon sink action of forests and croplands contributed-12 % of emissions

Web-based application on Integrated Waste Management System (IWMS)

About: Government has launched a web-based application on Integrated Waste Management System (IWMS) –www.iwms.nic.infor better management of waste.

Aim –

  • Provide an opportunity to- > All the industries dealing in hazardous waste, to apply online.
  • To enhance transparency in the working of - > Ministry and other Centre/State level regulatory bodies
  • To reduce time taken for- > Processing applications + Seeking various types of permissions under the recently notified waste anagement regulations.
  • To being a single window access- > Application is expected to expedite the way the permission is granted and way the analysis could be done not only for authorization and consents, but also for import/export permission under the rules.

Key benefits of the web-based application include

  • Availability of State-wise and national database on generation of various types of waste and number of waste generating/processing industrial units in the country at one place.
  • Help the authorities further to identify the problem areas and plan accordingly.
  • Will bring more transparency in the functioning of the Ministry and other State Authorities.
  • Conversion of the current legacy paper house to a green office i. e. a virtual office moving ahead with all its relevant required data on its own private cloud.
  • Single Window Access –Bridging the gap between industries and other waste generators + Recyclers + Operators of disposal facilities + State Pollution Control Board (SPCBs) /Pollution Control Committees (PCCSs) + Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) + Municipalities and the oncerned ministries for environmentally sound waste management of such wastes.
  • Quick decision on applications by the authorities; earlier, it was arduous and time-taking, due to need of physical movement of the papers
  • Better coordination and availability of information with the User Agencies (entrepreneurs/industries), Central and State authorities that will further help in achieving the objectives of ’Ease of Doing Businesses’ and Make in India’, significantly.
  • Encapsulation of all the information from state bodies and provide consolidated information at one place, which will help the Central and State authorities for effective monitoring.
  • Phase-II (upgraded version) of the (IWMS) is expected to encompass generation of annual report from the annual return filed by the industries and other stakeholders for various type of waste generated in the country.
  • Upgraded version will provide customized GIS based information on waste management in the country.
  • GIS maps will be generated and integrated with underlying information to provide an excellent visual outlook to the available data.

Earth Hour

  • It is an annual global environmental event/movement organized by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)
  • Aim: To raise awareness for sustainable energy use and create a more environmentally sustainable lifestyle
  • This day encourages citizens, communities, businesses and organisations to switch the lights off from 8: 30 pm local time for an hour to highlight the plight of the planet
  • The first Earth Hour was held on March 31, 2007 in Sydney, Australia

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

An international non-governmental organization (NGO) working in the field of the biodiversity conservation, and the reduction of humanity’s footprint on the environment

Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment Report

For the first time commitments of emerging economies in solar, wind and other renewables’ capacity have surpassed those by wealthy nations India, China led investments in renewable energy in 2015

Global New Investmnet in Renewable Power and Fuels

Global New Investmnet in Renewable Power and Fuels

Global New Investmnet in Renewable Power and Fuels

India, China led investments in renewable energy in 2015: UN

  • News: For the first time commitments of emerging economies in solar, wind and other renewables’ capacity have surpassed those by wealthy nations
  • Report: ’Global Trends in Renewable Energy Investment’
  • Published by: UN Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • Developed Countries -Investments down to 8 per cent in 2015 to USD 130 billion
  • Developing Countries (India, China & Brazil) -Committed a total of USD 156 billion in new renewables capacity last year, up 19 per cent from 2014
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Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS 2017

Expected Questions on Environment and Biodiversity Part 2 - UPSC IAS 2017

- Published/Last Modified on: June 14, 2017


Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2018 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, CBSE-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.