Highlight on Health Medical Developments-Expected Questions 2017 Part-1 (Download PDF)


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We will be covering the important questions and topics for competitive examinations for 2017 related to Defense and related policies. As per video tutorials and lectures at YouTube@Examrace

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Expected Questions on Health: UPSC IAS 2017

Dr. Manishika Jain in this video covers a variety of topics which are important for 2017. These include the expected questions on health.


  • Leprosy or Hansen’s disease (HD)
  • Chronic infection by bacteria Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis
  • Initially infections are without symptoms and remain for 5 - 20 years.
  • Granulomas of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. Lack of ability to feel pain and thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries.
  • 2 main types of disease based on number of bacteria: paucibacillary (few) and multibacillary (more than 5). Differentiated by number of poorly pigmented numb skin patches present.
  • Diagnosis: Find acid-fast bacilli in skin biopsy or detect DNA by polymerase chain reaction
  • Common in poor people & transmitted by respiratory droplets.
  • Leprosy is curable with treatment.
  • Treatment for paucibacillary leprosy: Dapsone and rifampicin for 6 months.
  • Treatment for multibacillary leprosy: Rifampicin, dapsone, and clofazimine for 12 months. These treatments are provided for free by WHO.


  • Anti-Leprosy Day: 30th January on martyrs’ day to commemorate MK Gandhi’s selfless service to Leprosy patients.
  • India started MDT with World Bank and WHO in 1993 till 2004, but it stopped when leprosy was declared eradicated from India.
  • Later Started again
  • Free of cost treatment.
  • Leprosy is chronic infectious disease that affects nervous system.
  • Cause disability and permanent blindness.
  • Caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium Leprae.
  • Spread through contact with untreated patients.
  • Not hereditary.
  • Curable with Multi-Drug Therapy (MDT): Combines 3 drugs to kill bacteria.
Image shows some Important Location of Leprosy

Image Shows Some Important Location of Leprosy

Image shows some Important Location of Leprosy

TB Free India by 2030

  • WHO South East Asian Region: Half of the global tuberculosis burden. Six of the region’s countries Bangladesh, South Korea, India, Indonesia, Myanmar and Thailand are among 30 high TB burden nations globally.
  • 2015 in SE Asia: Estimated 4.74 million new TB cases & nearly 8, 00, 000 deaths.
  • India: Single highest number of TB cases in the world
  • India: 2.8 million new TB cases annually & half a million deaths.
  • Infectious, airborne disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Mainly affects the lungs.
  • Transmitted from person to person through the air


  • For Drug Resistant TB
  • Diarylquinoline that specifically targets Mycobacterial ATP synthase (an enzyme that supply energy to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and most other mycobacteria)
Image of Bedaquiline

Image of Bedaquiline

Image of Bedaquiline


  • Its avian influenza virus
  • Pneumonia and fever.
  • Contact with infected bird dead or alive.
  • In December, 2013, Chinese health officials confirmed the first human case of avian influenza A H10N8 virus infection.

Mad Cow Disease

  • Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (CJD)
  • A rare and fatal degenerative brain disorder
  • Characterised by: Rapidly progressive dementia, with an incidence rate of 1 in 1.5 million
  • Discovered by: Prusiner, who later won a Nobel Prize
  • Transmission: From person to person like HIV
  • Variant CJD (vCJD): Caused by eating beef products
The Spread of mad Cow disease

The Spread of Mad Cow Disease

The Spread of mad Cow disease

- Published/Last Modified on: June 8, 2017


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