Highlight on Health Medical Developments-Expected Questions 2017 Part-3 (Download PDF)

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We will be covering the important questions and topics for competitive examinations for 2017 related to Defense and related policies. As per video tutorials and lectures at YouTube@Examrace

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Expected Questions on Health: UPSC IAS 2017

Dr. Manishika Jain in this video covers a variety of topics which are important for 2017. These include the expected questions on health.

Leptospirosis

  • Leptospirosis (or field fever, rat catcher’s yellows, and pretibial fever): Infection caused by corkscrew-shaped bacteria called Leptospira.
  • Symptoms: Headaches, muscle pains, and fevers; bleeding from the lungs or meningitis.
  • Person turns yellow, have kidney failure and bleeding - Weil’s disease.
  • Bleeding from the lungs - severe pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome.
  • 13 different types of Leptospira may cause disease in humans.
  • Transmitted by both wild and domestic animals mainly rodents
  • Transmission: Animal urine or by water or soil containing animal urine coming into contact with breaks in the skin, eyes, mouth, or nose.

STATINS and QRisk2

  • Statins: Drugs that lower cholesterol levels by inhibiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (produce 70 % cholesterol of the body in the liver)
  • High cholesterol levels: Associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins prevent cardiovascular disease in those who are at high risk.
  • QRISK2 (QRISK): Prediction algorithm for CVD. Uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) with BMI, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes and antihypertensive treatment.
  • QRISK over 20 (20 % risk of CVD event over next ten years) indicates that primary prevention with lipid lowering therapy (like statins) should be initiated.

ReANIMA

  • World’s first clinical trial on the revival of brain dead patients
  • Joint Venture: US company & Rudrapur (Uttrakhand) based hospital
  • India currently has no laws for clinical trials on ’living cadaver’ or brain dead patients
  • Study: Effects of stem cell therapy, Median Nerve Stimulation and a laser therapy on comatose patients

Rotavirus Vaccine

  • Use: To treat diarrhoea
  • Now part of Universal immunization program (1985 – largest program in world)
  • Developed indigenously under a PPP mode of Ministry of Science and Ministry of Health and Family welfare
  • Other new vaccines are being introduced as part of UIP:

    • Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV)
    • Measles, Rubella (MR) vaccine
    • Adult Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccine

Augmented Humanity

  • A phrase that was coined in 2010 by Eric Schmidt (ex-Google CEO)
  • Use of technology to both aid and replace human capability that joins person and machine as one
  • Wearable devices - what we want through our mood, heart rate and body temperature
  • Defines machinery used to replace or enhance parts of the body

MenAfriVac

  • Meningitis A vaccine manufactured by the Pune-based Serum Institute of India.
  • It’s a controlled temperature chain (CTC) vaccine means it can sustain high temperature up to 40℃ for upto 4 days.
  • Normally a vaccine needs to be kept at 2 - 8 degree but it’s exceptional.
  • Immunization program conducted in sub-Saharan Africa countries with this vaccine - funded by GAVI and WHO/PATH.

Benefits of MenAfriVac

  • Sustain high temperature without being affected in quality
  • Carried to far flung areas for vaccination
  • Production Cost per vaccine is low
  • Maintenance cost of this vaccine is less.
  • Reduced logistic burden
  • Reduced wastage
  • No need for workers to return to refilling stations every day.
 Image of MenAfrivac

Image of MenAfrivac

Image of MenAfrivac

Neurobridge Technology

  • Specialized sleeve on forearm to communicate with a chip implanted in Patient’s brain
  • Chip processes patient’s thoughts, then bypasses the spinal cord, sending signals directly to the sleeve to produce movement.
  • Within a tenth of a second, Patient’s thoughts are translated into action.

cDNA

  • Complementary DNA (cDNA) is DNA synthesized from a messenger RNA (mRNA) template in a reaction catalysed by the enzymes reverse transcriptase.
  • Used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes.
  • Express a specific protein that does not express that protein (i. e. , heterologous expression), transfer cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell.
  • It is also produced by retroviruses (such as HIV-1, HIV-2, Simian Immunodeficiency Virus, etc. ) and then integrated into the host’s genome where it creates a provirus.
  • It refers to mRNA transcript sequence, expressed as DNA bases (GCAT) rather than RNA bases (GCAU).
Image of Complementary DNA

Image of Complementary DNA

Image of Complementary DNA

DNA Fingerprinting

  • Called DNA profiling.
  • Principle of No two persons can have same DNA sequence except identical twins.
  • Sample from hair, skin, blood and semen
  • Helps solve crimes and determine paternity.
  • Concerns about sample contamination, faulty preparation procedures, and erroneous interpretation of the results.
Image of DNA Fingerprinting

Image of DNA Fingerprinting

Image of DNA Fingerprinting

Introgressive Hybridization

  • Hybridization technique in which gene from species is moved to another species repeatedly backcrossing with one of its parent species.
  • Genetic variation is introduced and it prevents stable population which is required for wide range of adaptability.
  • Indian agriculture scientists at the Rice Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University developed rice which can tolerate submergence in water and can sustain salinity water intrusion in coastal areas.

Reverse Vaccine

  • Improvement on vaccinology that employs bioinformatics
  • By Rino Rappuoli
  • 1st used against Serogroup B meningococcus
  • Entire pathogenic genome can be screened using bioinformatics approaches to find genes.
  • Monitored traits may indicate antigenecity include genes that code for proteins with extracellular localization, signal peptides, and B-cell epitopes.
  • Genes are filtered for desirable attributes to make good vaccine targets such as outer membrane proteins.
  • Identify, produced synthetically and screen animal models of the infection.

- Published/Last Modified on: June 8, 2017

Health

Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2018 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, CBSE-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.