Historic Global Greenhouse Gas Emission Agreement Signed in Kigali (Download PDF)


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Historic global climate deal was reached in Kigali, Rwanda at the 28th Meeting of 197 Nations on the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (MOP28). It amends the 1987 Montreal Protocol. CGCs not only cause global warming, they deplete ozone layer.

Historic Global Greenhouse Gas

Historic Global Greenhouse Gas

Historic Global Greenhouse Gas

  • Agreement goal is to eliminate Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), a family of effective greenhouse gases by late 2040s.
  • All 197 countries, including India have agreed to a timeline to decrease use of HFCs by roughly 85 percent of their baselines by 2045.
  • Earlier HFCs were brought to replace CFCs, which are even more harmful.

Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

  • HFCs are a group of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that are utilized in refrigerants in home, auto aeration, cooling systems, and air sprays etc.
  • These gasses supplanted CFCs under the 1987 protocol.
  • Montreal Protocol aims to protect Earth’s delicate protective Ozone layer and recuperate the ozone gap over the Antarctica.

Importance of Kigali Amendment:

  • Amend the 1987 Montreal Protocol, designed to close growing ozone hole in by banning ozone-depleting coolants like chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • HFCs responsible for global warming: Amended Montreal Protocol to include HFCs, which was initially considered only to plug gases that were destroying the ozone layer.
  • Helps to prevent a possible 0.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature: This move will prevent a potential 0.5 degree Celsius rise in global temperature by the end of the century.
  • Binding on countries: Kigali Agreement or amended Montreal Protocol for HFCs reduction will be binding on countries from 2019.
  • Provisions for penalties for non-compliance: Developed countries will also provide higher funding support estimated at billions of dollars globally.

Different Timelines under Kigali Amendment

All participant countries are divided into 3 groups with different timelines for reductions of HFCs.

First Group:

  • First group includes richest countries such as, US and those in European Union (EU).
  • They will freeze production and consumption of HFCs by 2018.
  • They will decrease them to about 15 % of 2012 levels by 2036.

Second Group:

  • Second group includes countries such as, China, Brazil and all of Africa etc.
  • They will freeze HFC use by 2024.
  • They will decrease them to about 20 % of 2021 levels by 2045.

Third Group:

  • Third group includes countries like India, Pakistan, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia etc.
  • They will be freezing HFC use by 2028.
  • They will be decreasing them to about 15 % of 2025 levels by 2047.

How It Different from Paris Agreement

  • Paris agreement will come into force by 2020. However, it is not legally binding on countries to cut their emissions.
  • Kigali Amendment is considered vital and complementary for realizing the Paris Agreement target of keeping global temperature increase to below 2-degree Celsius compared to pre-industrial times.

- Published/Last Modified on: October 17, 2016

International Relations/Organizations

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