IAS Mains GS Paper 3- 2018 ( Questions 1 to 10) Part 1 (Download PDF)

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Q 1. “Access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy is the sine qua non (Essential) to achieve Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) “. Comment on the progress made in India in this regard.

Vision: Ensure Access to Affordable, Reliable, Sustainable and Modern Energy for All by 2030

Mission:

  • Electrification of all households and ensuring availability of quality power for all [DDUGJY for rural electrification, R – APDRP (Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Program), DDG (Decentralized Distributed Generation) ]
  • Increase State Conventional electricity generation capacity to 1202.2 MW by end of 2030
  • Increase the contribution of Renewable Energy in the total energy mix of the state to 9.04% (807 MW) by end of 2023 & 10.5 % (963 MW) by end of 2030.
  • Reduce AT&C losses below 15 % by end of 2023 & 8 % by end of 2030
  • Expansion of transmission network to handle peak power to the tune of 4000 MW by end of
  • 2023 & 5600 MW by end of 2030
  • To promote all matters concerning energy conservation and energy efficiency pertaining to use of electricity

Themes

  • Electricity access
  • Electricity availability and reliability
  • Renewable energy
  • Energy efficiency - “Negawatt” produces no environmental footprint (cleaner, cheaper and faster)
  • Infrastructure investments
  • Environmental investments
  • By 2030, ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services
  • By 2030, increase substantially the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix
  • By 2030, double the global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • Expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programs of support

Q 2. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018 - 2019.

DDT for mutual funds.

Introduce a tax on distributed income by equity-oriented mutual funds at the rate of 10 percent (11.648 percent including surcharge and cess), to provide a level field across growth oriented and dividend distributing schemes.

The proposed change in Capital Gains Tax will bring marginal revenue gain of about Rs. 20,000 crore in the first year, in view of grandfathering.

Growth option could be more suitable and to meet regular income needs, the Systematic Withdrawal Plan (SWP) option may have to be used by investors. In SWP, the gains will still be taxed and therefore may not help much in reducing tax liability. DDT on all non-equity funds such as money market, liquid, and debt funds is 25 percent plus 12 percent surcharge plus 4 percent cess, totalling to 29.12 percent.

Capital Gain Tax (CGT) is levied on any profit arising from sale of ‘Capital Asset’. Depending on the length/duration of the ownership before selling of the asset, this tax is further divided into 1) Long term CGT and 2) Short term CGT.

Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) is levied on the amount of profits paid by the company in the form of dividends to its shareholders.

Until now, if an investor sold his shares / (equity) Mutual Fund units after holding it for a period longer than 12 months then his profits were not subjected to Long term capital gains tax.

Budget-2018 announced to levy 10 % LCGT on profit exceeding Rs. 1 lakh during the sale of shares (equities) & equity mutual funds.

Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) is levied on the dividend paid by the company to its shareholders. Two major changes were made here in Budget 2018 - 19

Previously Equity Mutual Fund distributing income to its investors, were not subject to DDT. Now they’re subjected to 10 % DDT.

MNCs and local unscrupulous companies would announce merger/amalgamations of their profit making subsidiary company with loss making subsidiary company, in order to reduce their DDT liabilities to promoters. To reduce the tax-avoidance through this loophole, Budget-2018 made certain technical changes in the computation of Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT)

Q 2. Comment on the important changes introduced in respect of the Long term Capital Gains Tax (LCGT) and Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) in the Union Budget for 2018 - 2019.

DDT for mutual funds.

  • Introduce a tax on distributed income by equity-oriented mutual funds at the rate of 10 percent (11.648 percent including surcharge and cess), to provide a level field across growth oriented and dividend distributing schemes.
  • The proposed change in Capital Gains Tax will bring marginal revenue gain of about Rs. 20,000 crore in the first year, in view of grandfathering.
  • Growth option could be more suitable and to meet regular income needs, the Systematic Withdrawal Plan (SWP) option may have to be used by investors. In SWP, the gains will still be taxed and therefore may not help much in reducing tax liability.
  • DDT on all non-equity funds such as money market, liquid, and debt funds is 25 percent plus 12 percent surcharge plus 4 percent cess, totalling to 29.12 percent.
  • Capital Gain Tax (CGT) is levied on any profit arising from sale of ‘Capital Asset’. Depending on the length/duration of the ownership before selling of the asset, this tax is further divided into 1) Long term CGT and 2) Short term CGT.
  • Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) is levied on the amount of profits paid by the company in the form of dividends to its shareholders.
  • Until now, if an investor sold his shares / (equity) Mutual Fund units after holding it for a period longer than 12 months then his profits were not subjected to Long term capital gains tax.
  • Budget-2018 announced to levy 10 % LCGT on profit exceeding Rs. 1 lakh during the sale of shares (equities) & equity mutual funds.
  • Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT) is levied on the dividend paid by the company to its shareholders. Two major changes were made here in Budget 2018 - 19
  • Previously Equity Mutual Fund distributing income to its investors, were not subject to DDT. Now they’re subjected to 10 % DDT.
  • MNCs and local unscrupulous companies would announce merger/amalgamations of their profit making subsidiary company with loss making subsidiary company, in order to reduce their DDT liabilities to promoters. To reduce the tax-avoidance through this loophole, Budget-2018 made certain technical changes in the computation of Dividend Distribution Tax (DDT)

Q 3. What do you mean by Minimum Support Price (MSP)? How will MSP rescue the farmers from the low income trap?

Refer -

Loading video•••

PDS, MSP, Issue Price - Key Terms in Economics (Must Know! )

Dr. Manishika in this leecture explains PDS, MSP, Issue Price - Key Terms

NCERT Economics Class 10.

  • Economic security
  • Targeted crop production increases
  • Higher food security for National Food Security plan
  • Motivation to increase production
  • National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme should be implemented in such a way that the farm operations do not get affected for want of labour

Q 4. Examine the role of supermarkets in supply chain management of fruits, vegetables and food items. How do they eliminate number of intermediaries?

Benefits of removing intermediaries

  • Cost saving
  • Better value
  • Efficiency
  • Environmental Impact
  • Build Emotional Connection
  • Since the introduction of ecommerce, manufacturers have been increasingly cutting out aspects of the retail process they do not own.

Q 5. Discuss the work of ‘Bose-Einstein Statistics’ done by Prof. Satyendra Nath Bose and show how it revolutionized the field of Physics.

  • In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium. The aggregation of particles in the same state, which is a characteristic of particles obeying Bose–Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium.
  • The Bose–Einstein statistics apply only to those particles not limited to single occupancy of the same state—that is, particles that do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle restrictions. Such particles have integer values of spin and are named bosons,
  • Satyendra Nath Bose was one of the world’s pioneering theoretical, widely called the ‘Father of the God Particle’ for his work on the Boson, a class of particles named after him because they obey Bose–Einstein statistics. His work on quantum mechanics in the early 1920s laid the foundation for Bose–Einstein statistics and the theory of the Bose–Einstein condensate.
  • Bose was honoured with Padma Vibhusan in 1954, the second-highest civilian award in India. In 1959 he was appointed National Professor, the highest honour in the country for a scholar

Q 6. What are the impediments in disposing the huge quantities of discarded solid wastes which are continuously being generated? How do we remove safely the toxic wastes that have been accumulating in our habitable environment?

  • Solid waste management is a term that is used to refer to the process of collecting and treating solid wastes. It also offers solutions for recycling items that do not belong to garbage or trash.
  • It can be residential, commercial, industrial, municipal, construction and demolition, treatment plant and agriculture.
  • Toxic materials and chemicals may seep into the soil and pollute the ground water. During the process of collecting solid waste, the hazardous wastes usually mix with ordinary garbage and other flammable wastes making the disposal process even harder and risky - Pirana (Ahmedabad) - Corrosion of AC pipes, cancer
  • Methods
  • Incineration
  • Sanitary landfill
  • Recycling
  • Recovering
  • Composting
  • Pyrolysis - decomposed by heat without presence of oxygen
  • Pits and bins
  • Transport waste
  • The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) recently notified the newSolid Waste Management Rules (SWM), 2016. These will replace the Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules, 2000, which have been in place for the past 16 years. 6 categories: plastic, e-waste, biomedical, hazardous and construction and demolition waste management rules – segregation at source, disposal of sanitary waste, collect back scheme for packing waste, fee for collection, waste processing and energy from waste

Q 7. What is wetland? Explain the Ramsar concept of ‘wise use’ in the context of wetland conservation. Cite two examples of Ramsar sites from India.

This is image show in Golabal & Local ecosystem service city

This is Image Show in Golabal & Local Ecosystem Service City

This is image show in Golabal & Local ecosystem service city

  • Wetland - distinct ecosystem that is inundated by water, either permanently or seasonally, where oxygen-free processes prevail.
  • The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands. It is also known as the Convention on Wetlands. It is named after the city of Ramsar in Iran, where the Convention was signed in 1971.
  • At the centre of the Ramsar philosophy is the “wise use” of wetlands. When they accede to the Convention, Contracting Parties commit to work towards the wise use of all the wetlands and water resources in their territory, through national plans, policies and legislation, management actions and public education.
  • In 1990 the Contracting Parties adopted Guidelines for the implementation of the wise use concept. The Guidelines emphasized the importance of:
  • adopting national wetland policies, either separately or as a component of wider initiatives such as national environmental action plans;
  • developing programs covering wetland inventory, monitoring, research, training, education and public awareness;
  • developing integrated management plans at wetland sites.
  • A definition of “wise use” was first adopted by Contracting Parties at COP3 in 1987.
  • Under the framework, “wise use” equates to the maintenance of ecosystem benefits/services to ensure long term maintenance of biodiversity as well as human well-being and poverty alleviation
  • There are currently over 2,200 Ramsar Sites around the world. They cover over 2.1 million square kilometres, an area larger than Mexico.
  • The world’s first Site was the Cobourg Peninsula in Australia, designated in 1974.
  • The largest Sites are Ngiri-Tumba-Maindombe in the Democratic Republic of Congo and Queen Maud Gulf in Canada; these Sites each cover over 60,000 square kilometres.
  • India Examples – Nalsarovar (Gujarat) and Chilika Lake (Odisha)

Q 8. Sikkim is the first ‘Organic State’ in India. What are the ecological and economical benefits of Organic State?

Refer -

Loading video•••

Organic Farming: Kurukshetra May 2019 (Examrace - Dr. Manishika Jain) UPSC/NABARD

Organic Farming: Kurukshetra May 2019 is explained in this lecture

The evidence is clear about the success of organic farming in terms of human health, prosperity, the benefits to soil and water, to birds and bees, and the ability of organic farming to mitigate damage from global climate change.

Environmental Benefits

  • Sustainability
  • Soil
  • Water
  • Air
  • Biodiversity
  • GM organisms
  • Ecological Services
  • Reduce pesticides
  • Healthy soil
  • Combat erosion
  • Fight global warming
  • Support water conservation
  • Discourage algal blooms

Economic Benefits

  • Improve ground cover
  • Reduce runoff
  • Borrow less money for fertilizers and pesticides
  • Tax benefit by government

Q 9. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is viewed as a cardinal subset of China’s larger ‘One Belt One Road’ initiative. Give a brief description of CPEC and enumerate the reasons why India has distanced itself from the same.

This is image show in CPEC Investment Tree

This is Image Show in CPEC Investment Tree

This is image show in CPEC Investment Tree

  • CPEC is intended to rapidly modernize Pakistani infrastructure and strengthen its economy by the construction of modern transportation networks, numerous energy projects, and special economic zones
  • To enhance the benefits of their common border, the two sides in 1982 accomplished the legendary Karakorum Highway (KKH), linking China’s Kashgar to Pakistan’s Islamabad, through the Khunjerab Pass. Throughout the 2000s, the highway was stretched and modernized to make it functioning for all kinds of traffic, year round. An internal network of roads connects KKH with Pakistan’s Gwadar and Karachi ports in the south of the country
  • China’s biggest foreign direct investment deal to invest in Pakistan
  • Pakistan has signed a currency swap with china in 2014 year, which marks Pakistan the first South Asian nation to sign such type of agreement with China. China is the second largest trade partner of Pakistan and biggest investor in infrastructure, telecommunications, ports, energy sectors. Furthermore, Chinese government and private companies from China have guaranteed to spend US $20 billion in the energy sector and massive amount of above $30 billion in other sectors as a foreign direct investment in Pakistan, which will be supportive for promoting mutual trade between the two countries
  • A system of monitoring and surveillance will be built in cities from Peshawar to Karachi with 24-hour video recording on roads and busy marketplaces for law and order.
  • Besides, as the per master plan, a national fibre-optic backbone will be built for Pakistan not only for internet traffic, but also terrestrial distribution of broadcast TV, which will cooperate with Chinese media in the “dissemination of Chinese culture”

Q 10. Left Wing Extremism (LWE) is showing a downward trend, but still affects many parts of the country. Briefly explain the Government of India’s approach to counter the challenges posed by LWE.

  • States of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Bihar, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Kerala are considered LWE affected
  • Empower security force
  • Good governance
  • Socio-economic development
  • Public perception management
  • approving ‘umbrella scheme for modernization of police force’; formulation of special forces – Black Panthers (Chhattisgarh) and Bastariya Batallion (by CRPF); SAMADHAN Doctrine
  • According to some figures released by Ministry of Home Affairs the number of districts affected with Naxal violence have come down from 106 to 90, across 11 states.
  • skill development schemes like ‘ROSHNI’ will enable the youth from LWE areas to channelize their energies in right direction and be saved from radicalization by Naxalites.
  • setting up 4,072 mobile towers to improvise telecom connectivity network in LWE areas
  • ‘Choo Lo Asmaan’ a good governance initiative in the field of education by the district collector of Dantewada is one of the most notable example in this regard. ▪ Election awareness campaigns and peaceful conduction of elections is another good governance
  • Special Infrastructure Scheme (SIS) to construct fortified police stations.
  • 2016’s demonetization drive also affected the LWE-funding.
  • Central Government closely monitors the situation and supplements and coordinates their efforts in several ways. These include providing the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPFs); sanction of India Reserve (IR) battalions, setting up of Counter Insurgency and Anti Terrorism (CIAT) schools; modernisation and upgradation of the State Police and their Intelligence apparatus; reimbursement of security related expenditure under the Security-related Expenditure (SRE) Scheme; providing helicopters for anti-LWE operations, assistance in training of State Police through the Ministry of Defence, the Central Police Organisations and the Bureau of Police Research and Development; sharing of Intelligence; facilitating inter-State coordination; assistance in community policing and civic action programmes etc.

- Published/Last Modified on: August 29, 2019

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