India Justice Report-2019 (Download PDF)

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India Justice Report is the first ever ranking of Indian states on Justice Delivery which is released by the Tata trust in collaboration with Centre for Social Justice, common cause and Commonwealth Human Rights initiative. The report ranks Indian states on the basis of four parameters being important for the justice delivery system and it is based on publicly available data of different government entities. These parameters include Police, Prison, Judiciary and Legal Aid.

India Justice Report-2019

India Justice Report-2019

India Justice Report-2019

Ranking of the States

  • The states having population of one crore and above are categorised under the ranking parameters. Under the performing States of large-medium state are Maharashtra Kerala and Tamil Nadu and worst performing states are Uttar Pradesh Bihar Jharkhand.

  • Small states and union territories whose population is less than 1 crore. Small states under the top performing states are Goa, Sikkim and Himachal Pradesh. The worst performing states are Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya.

  • The overall ranking is based on the performance of various States on these four parameters (Police, Prison, Judiciary and Legal Aid) and also individual ranking based on all single parameters.

  • Maharashtra is at the top among all the large-medium states in justice delivery in all four parameters. Under the individual ranking Tamil Nadu and Kerala are in the first position.

  • Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are at the bottom.


  • As far as the diversity quotas (SC, ST and OBC) are concerned no state/UT shall be able to meet them.

  • Karnataka came closest to achieve diversity quotas missing SC reservation target by just 4%.

Issues related to Indian Justice System

Vacancies in Judiciary

  • About 25 % vacancies in many states as compared to sanction strength of judges in the judiciary.

  • India has vacancy of about 18,200 judges which comprises 23 % of the sanctions posts in the judiciary are lying vacant.

  • This is one of the reasons for poor delivering of the justice pendency of cases in Judiciary system.

  • Gujarat is the only state to reduce vacancies across all the four pillars.

Lower Share of Women

  • Women do not have proper representation in judiciary police and Legal Aid.

  • Nearly 7 % of women represented in the police in India, 10 % of prison staff and 26.5 % of all judges in the High Court and subordinate courts.


  • Most of the states not able to fully utilise the budget which have been allocated by the central. There is lack of increase in the spending on police prison and judiciary.

  • Low budget allocation affects the justice system. Per capita expenditure on Legal aid is just 75 paisa.

Case Clearance Rates

  • The case clearance rate is the number of cases which are cleared in a year as compared to the number of cases which are filed in that year.

  • If the case clearance rate is higher it reduces the number of pending cases in the judicial system of that state.

  • Gujarat, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Tripura, Odisha Lakshadweep under Tamil Nadu and Manipur are the only States to clear as many cases as where filed.

  • Government and Judiciary need to work together to fill the gap in the Managing of police, prison, and forensics filling vacancies.

- Published/Last Modified on: November 25, 2019


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