Indian Human Spaceflight Initiative: Gaganyaan Has Been Approved (Download PDF)


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The Union Cabinet approved the Gaganyaan Programme with demonstration of Indian Human Spaceflight capability to low earth orbit for a mission duration ranging from one orbital period to a maximum of seven days.

Image Of Going Into Flight Details

Image Of Going Into Flight Details

Image Of Going Into Flight Details


  • Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III

  • The Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III, also referred to as the Launch Vehicle Mark 3 is a three-stage medium-lift launch vehicle developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation.

  • Stages: 3

  • First flight: 18 December 2014 (suborbital); 5 June 2017 (orbital)

  • Last flight: 14 November 2018

  • Function: Medium-lift launch vehicle

  • A human rated GSLV Mk-III will be used to carry the orbital module which will have necessary provisions for sustaining a 3-member crew for the duration of the mission.

  • The necessary infrastructure for crew training, realization of flight systems and ground infrastructure will be established to support the Gaganyaan Programme.

  • ISRO will collaborate extensively with National agencies, laboratories, academia and industry to accomplish the Gaganyaan Programme objectives.


  • The total fund requirement for the Gaganyaan Programme is within Rs. 10,000 crore & includes cost of technology development, flight hardware realization and essential infrastructure elements.

  • Two unmanned flights and one manned flight will be undertaken as part of Gaganyaan Programme.


  • Gaganyaan Programme will establish a broader framework for collaboration between ISRO, academia, industry, national agencies and other scientific organizations.

  • This will allow pooling in of diverse technological and industrial capabilities and enable broader participation in research opportunities and technology development benefitting large number of students and researchers.

  • The flight system realization will be through Industry.

  • It is expected to generate employment and train human resources in advanced technologies.

  • It will inspire large number of young students to take up science and technology careers for national development.

Gaganyaan Programme

  • Gaganyaan Programme is a national effort and will involve the participation of the Industry, Academia and National Agencies spread across the length and breadth of the country.

  • Gaganyaan is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the basis of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.

  • The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capability.

  • First launch: December, 2020 (uncrewed), December 2021 (crewed)

  • Crew capacity: 3

  • Design life: 7 days


  • ISRO has completed the development of launch vehicle GSLV Mk-III which has the necessary payload capability to launch a 3-member crew module in low earth orbit.

  • ISRO has also tested the crew escape system which is an essential technology for human space flight.

  • The aerodynamic characterization of crew module has b3een completed as part of GSLV Mk-III X mission flight.

  • Elements of life support system and Space suit also have been realized and tested. In addition, the orbital & re-entry mission and recovery operations have been flight demonstrated in Space Capsule Re-entry experiment (SRE) mission.

  • ISRO has developed and demonstrated most of the baseline technologies essential for undertaking human spaceflight mission. Globally also, there is a renewed interest in undertaking manned exploration initiatives.

Strategy & Target

  • ISRO will be responsible for realizing the flight hardware through Industry.

  • National agencies, laboratories and Academia will participate in crew training, human life science technology development initiatives as well as design reviews.

  • First human space flight demonstration is targeted to be completed within 40 months from the date of sanction.

  • Prior to this, two unmanned flights in full complement will be carried out to gain confidence on the technology and mission management aspects.

Impact of this Programme

  • The programme is expected to spur research and development within the country in niche science and technology domains.

  • Huge potential for technology spinoffs in areas such as medicine, agriculture, industrial safety, pollution, waste management, water and food resource management etc.

  • Human spaceflight programme will provide a unique micro-gravity platform in space for conducting experiments and test bed for future technologies.

  • The programme is expected to give impetus to economic activities within the country in terms of employment generation, human resource development and enhanced industrial capabilities.

  • Human Spaceflight capability will enable India to participate as a collaborating partner in future global space exploration initiatives with long term national benefits.

- Published/Last Modified on: February 22, 2019

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