Irrigation & Water Conservation: Kurukshetra November 2017 Summary (Special Edition) (Important) (Download PDF)


Download PDF of This Page (Size: 316.85 K)

PM Krishi Sinchayee Yojana – Bring water to every field – har Khet ko Pani. India support 16 % world population with 2 % land area. Increase water efficiency. “More Crop, Per Drop” – micro-irrigation like sprinkler and drip irrigation.

Loading video

Irrigation & Water Conservation: Kurukshetra November 2017 Summary (Special Edition) (In - English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra November 2017: Irrigation & Water Conservation (Special Edition)

Rooftop Water Harvesting Systems

  • Traditional methods for water conservation like Jhalara, Bawari, Kuhls (discussed below)

More crop per drop: efficient irrigation water use

  • India’s irrigated area is 80 million hectare – largest in world (mainly groundwater irrigation)

  • Globally only 0.4 % of total water on earth can be used for meeting our needs.

  • 14 % of world population shares 53 % of total water resources

  • Remaining 86 % of population including China & India shares 47 % of water.

  • India consumes 4 % although it contributes 17 % of world population.

  • Total precipitation is 4000 BCM – of which 1123 BCM is utilizable water resource (Surface water - 690 BCM & ground water – 433 BCM)

  • To support 1.7 billion populations (2050) India will need 450 MT cereals

  • By 2050, water demand will be 73 % in irrigation & domestic sector from the current 80%

    Scarcity of water in India

  • 75 % of rainfall in India occurs in 4 months which is unevenly distributed throughout the country

  • The per unit capita availability of water resources is declining over the years and may reach scarcity by 2050

  • India’s per capita water availability is low compared to countries such as Brazil, Australia, USA, UK, Bangladesh and China.

  • Irrigation water withdrawal for rice is 3.48 BCM/yr/mha in India while in Myanmar its more efficient with 1.90 BCM/yr/mha

Agriculture sector consumes about 80 % of India’s water resources, suffers from low water use efficiency about 38%.

👌 Efficiency

  • Canal & flood irrigation has an efficiency of 55 - 60% (loss due to evaporation, percolation & seepage) while micro irrigation technology has efficiency of 90%
  • Efficiency is ratio of output to input & given in %
  • Water conveyance efficiency is defined as ratio of water delivered to farm or irrigated plot over the water supplied or diverted from river or reservoir & focuses on attention of suitability of application of water to crops (60 % in surface irrigation system & 75 % in sprinkler irrigation system)
  • Water application efficiency as ratio of quantity of water stored in the root zone of the crop over the quantity of water delivered to the field
  • Water use efficiency is ratio of water consumptively used to quantity of water delivered
  • Water storage efficiency is ratio of water stored in root zone during irrigation and water needed in root zone prior to irrigation
  • Water distribution efficiency is degree to which water is uniformly distributed throughout the root zone

What to do for water conservation?

  • Drip and sprinkler irrigation

  • Revise cropping patterns

  • Constitute water user associations

  • Conjunctive use of surface and ground water

  • Introduce night irrigation practice to minimize evaporation loss

  • Timely irrigation to prevent water loss and water logging

  • Conserve monsoon waters

World Water Council – 50 % of increased agricultural demand by 2025 should be met by increasing water productivity

National Water Mission – Increase 20 % water use efficiency as part of National Action Plan on Climate change

Jain Irrigation System – Drip and Sprinkler Irrigation – rice production with 40 % increase in yield, 70 % water saving, 50 % energy conservation and 80 % fertilizer and water use efficiency

Reasons for low efficiency

  • Irregular land surface

  • Wrong irrigation methods

  • Steep slope of land surface


  • Drip & sprinkler irrigation

  • Application of IT

  • Sensor based water conveyance

  • Solar pump technology

  • Zero tillage technology – preserves moisture - allows farmers to lay seed at required depth with minimal disturbances of soil structure 👌

  • Laser levelling technology – properly contour land for planting

India Water Week

  • 40 % waste water is generated per day in urban area

  • Drinking water to all in rural areas by 2022

📝 Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana toward doubling farmer’s income by 2022

  • Extend coverage of irrigation ‘Har Khet ko pani’ and improving water use efficiency ‘More crop per drop’ in a focused manner with end to end solution
  • Kautilya in Arthashastra explained agriculture cannot be made solely dependent on rains which amounts to gambling with nature
  • At present, only 45 % area under assured irrigation
  • Enhance access to irrigation and technological advancement
  • With irrigation – cropping intensity or vertical intensification can be done
  • Shifting 1 hectare area from staple crop to high value crop increases gross return by 2.47 times
  • Average size of operation holding is declining with 67 % as marginal farmers
  • Improve crop & livestock productivity
  • Achieve higher resource use efficiency to lower cost of production
  • Increase cropping intensity to 153%
  • Increase area under high value crops to 26.4 mha

Approaches of PMKSY

  • Faster completion of irrigation projects

  • Effective management of runoff water

  • Create new water sources by irrigation schemes, repair and restoration

  • Efficient water conveyance and precision water application devices

  • Conduct sensitization programs & knowledge partnerships

  • Format of developing District Irrigation Plan

  • Funding by NABARD

Vision: Provide access to irrigation to every farm (Har khet ko pani)

Strategy (Outcome)

  • Creating water sources and storage (Increased irrigated area)

  • Bridging the gap between irrigation potential & utilization (More crop per drop)

  • Creating/Strengthening water distribution network (Enhanced Farm productivity)

  • Enhancing water use efficiency & management (Rural prosperity)

    Proposed Interventions

  • Rejuvenate springs – Dhara Vikas program in Sikkim 👌

  • Community participation

  • Affordable assured power for peak season irrigation

  • Development of groundwater and lift irrigation schemes

  • Solar power irrigator cooperatives

  • Support micro-irrigation

  • Support conversion to underground piped conveyance

  • Management of tanks and groundwater systems

  • Watershed treatment

  • Encourage peri-urban waste water irrigation

  • Create synergy between various schemes

Irrigation Systems in India

  • Total cultivable area is 185 mha & 172 mha is under cultivation
  • 70 % population depends on agriculture & rainfall is unpredictable
  • India is world’s largest groundwater irrigation system@39 mha
  • Gross cropped area is expected to rise to 200 mha in next 20 years by multiple cropping & land reclamation
  • Irrigation is needed as rainfall is uneven, water requirements can be met by irrigation, tropical nation with evaporation
  • Sources of Irrigation
  • 64.7 mha is under total irrigation – 45 % by tubewells, 26 % canals, 19 % wells, 3 % tanks & rest others (2010 - 11)

📝 Types of Irrigation

Tank Irrigation – Uneven and rocky areas of Deccan, AP, Karnataka, TN, east MP, Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Maharashtra – most of them are natural, on rocky bed & home to fishing (major issue is evaporation)

Well Irrigation – plains, coast and peninsula – less costly and more flexible – no over irrigation. UP largest area under well irrigation (28%) > Rajasthan (10%) > Punjab (8.65%)

  • Net irrigated area under well irrigation – Gujarat (82%) > Punjab (80%) > UP (74%)

  • 3/4th well irrigation in UP, Rajasthan, Punjab, MP, Gujarat, Bihar, AP

  • Open well – shallow and irrigate less area

  • Tube wells – deep, more suitable and can draw more water

Canal/Inundation Irrigation - covers 42 % of total irrigated land with 15.8 mha net area – canals in areas of floods like WB, Bihar & Odisha. Numerous canals in Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan

Perennial Canal Irrigation System – supply water either form river directly or by reservoirs (dams). Punjab – Bari Doab and Sirhind Canal, UP – Upper Ganga and Lower Ganga Canals

📹 Watershed Development in India

1990 - 91 – WARASA guidelines

2015 – NEERANCHAL guidelines

Integrated management model b/w natural resources, human and cattle

👌 C. H. Hanumantha Rao – Committee on DPAP and DDP – have a participatory watershed development model (success stories – Rayalgaon Siddhi and Adgaon in Maharashtra, Kabbalnala & Mittemari in Karnataka & Jhabua in MP)

👌 Neeranchal Project

  • Availability of water in rainfed areas, cater to small farmers and women

  • Approved with World Bank assistance

  • Better implementation of PMKSY

  • Best watershed management practice in India

  • Emphasize on knowledge sharing

NWDPRA (National Watershed Development Program for Rainfed Areas) – people’s participation

  • Conservation, development & sustainable management of watershed

  • Enhance agricultural productivity

  • Restore ecological balance

  • Reduce regional disparity

  • Create sustainable employment

  • Insitu moisture conservation

  • Adoption of ridge to valley approach

  • Mobilize communities at village level

IWDP (Integrated Watershed Development Program)

  • Financed by World Bank from 1990 to 1999

  • Improve sustainable land management practice & inter-agency coordination

  • Emphasis on women’s needs

  • Training and maintenance of staff and innovative ways


  • Watershed development at village level

  • Parthasarthy Committee recommended National Authority for Sustainable Development of Rainfed Areas & watershed development works over 8 year program divided in 3 phases

👌 NRAA (National Rainfed Area Authority)

  • Attached office of Dept. of Agriculture & Cooperation in 2006

  • Resolve agrarian challenges across rainfed system

  • Serves as knowledge platform

  • Facilitates skill and knowledge development of farmers

  • Longer credit cycles in rainfed areas

  • Insitu conservation of rain water

  • Contour cultivation

Floods & Droughts in India – Causes & Solutions

  • Floods – inundation by water – high flow of river might spill into habitation area downstream – common in UP, Bihar, Assam
  • 33.5mha is flood prone area in India & 7.5 mha is affected by floods every year
  • Causes of Floods – heavy rain, natural lake burst, breach of embankments and dam break
  • Managing Floods – structural (construct embankment – low bunds along rivers; flood control reservoirs – Hirakund on Mahanadi River) or non-structural (forecasting – prevent loss of life, disaster relief, flood plain zoning)
  • Inundation is due to inability to drain rainwater – Mumbai (in Aug 2017), Houston (USA)
  • Drought – 153 mha is drought prone, aim at survival of people and animals
  • Inter Basin Water Transfer (IBWT) – geographical area from which rainfall accumulates and drains out through river. Earliest plan to construct canal by Sir Arthur Cotton in 1858
  • KL Rao – transfer water from Ganga to Cauvery (1972)
  • Dastur – long canal in Himalayas and Peninsular India
  • 182 – NWDA was set up to carry water surplus and deficit studies
  • National Perspective Plan for Inter Basin Water transfer (NPP)
  1. Development of fisheries

  2. Infrastructure development

  3. Employment generation

  4. Flood control

  5. Generate 34, 000 MW of hydro power

  6. Irrigation to additional 35 mha

  7. Improve aquatic environment


  • Meteorological – deficient rainfall

  • Hydrological – inadequate water in aquifers and rivers

  • Agricultural – inadequate water supply to crops

Micro-Irrigation & Approaches for Improving Water Efficiency in Agriculture

Population is expected to reach 1.6 billion by 2050

UNFAO, 2011 – irrigation and livestock uses 91 % water withdrawal in India (1/3rd from groundwater)

54 % India suffers from water stress

Drip irrigation – irrigates root zones & provides continuous water supply in small quantity (80 - 90 % overall efficiency)

Sprinkler irrigation – pipes sprayed on crops and falls as drops on plants (50 - 70 % overall efficiency)

Micro-irrigation – reduce input consumption and improve productivity, reduction of input cost – so farmers can have new crops, improve power use efficiency by 30 - 35 % as requires lower power and few hours, improve fertilizer consumption efficiency by 20 - 30%, improve crop productivity (fruits – 42.3% & vegetables – 52.8%)

8 mha under micro-irrigation (5.5 % average penetration at All India Level) – potential of 27 mha for drip & 42.5 mha for sprinkler irrigation

Government Initiatives

  • National Mission on Micro-Irrigation (NMMI) 2010 - 14 – double area under micro-irrigation

  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) 2014 - 15 – promote efficient on-farm water management technology

  • PMKSY – 2015 - expand cultivable area with assured irrigation

Approach to enhance Water Use Efficiency

  • Avoid over-irrigation

  • Select cropping system based on available water supplies

  • Mixed cropping system

  • Irrigation scheduling based on evapotranspiration, soil water content and soil water tension

  • Full irrigation at critical growth stages and deficit irrigation at rest of the stages

  • Practice conservation tillage

  • Manage surface irrigation

  • Use of polyacrylamide or straw mulch to increase water holding capacity of soil in tight soils

Major Challenges

  • Finance

  • Use of IT & process management

  • Focus strategy for water intensive crop

  • Stable scheme guidelines

  • Charge water at nominal amount

📝 National Water Mission

  • Conserve water

  • Minimize wastage

  • Equitable distribution across states

  • Integrated water resource development

  • Comprehensive water database in public domain

  • Promote citizens for water conservation

  • Attention to vulnerable areas

  • Increase water efficiency by 20%

  • Promote basin level integrated water resource management

📝 Jal Kranti Abhiyan – 2015 - 16

  • Consolidate water conservation and management

  • Strengthen grass-root involvement

  • Encourage traditional knowledge

  • Use sector level expertise

  • Enhance livelihood security

It includes – Jal Gram Yojana – 2 villages in every district selected as Jal Grams with water security plan, model mass command area and mass awareness

Water storage level of 91 main reservoirs (157.79 BCM which is 62 % of 253.38 BCM) increase by 5 % in Sept 2017

Harvesting Rainwater for Agricultural Needs

  • India – rainfed agriculture at 57%- contributes 40 % foodgrains, 40 % population is supported, 80 % horticulture and 60 % livestock
  • 55 % rice, 91 % coarse grains, 90 % pulses, 85 % oilseeds & 65 % cotton are grown on rainfed areasrainfed agriculture in Rajasthan, MP, Maharashtra, AP and Karnataka – rainfall b/w 400 - 1000 mm, uneven and erratic – has frequent droughts, soil degradation, low soil moisture, low external input, low investment capacity, low cropping intensity, low productivity and poor returns
  • Move to Rainwater Harvesting – increase yield from 1 - 2 t/ha to 4 t/ha
  • Insitu – by shaping land, contour bunding, field bunding, ridge and furrow, contour trenching
  • External – induce collection and storage, recharge groundwater

Government Initiatives

  • Watershed Development Program (WDP)
  1. Water harvesting, insitu conservation, groundwater recharge, income generation for livelihoods
  2. Policy formulation by Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Rural Development, Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
  3. Initiated in 1949 with special center at Jodhpur in 1952
  • Dry framing projects in 2nd & 3rd 5-yr plan
  • Dryland farming in 4th 5-yr plan
  • DPAP (Drought Prone Area Program) in 1970 - 71
  • DDP (Desert Development Program) -1977 - 78
  • Integrated Watershed management in Catchment of Flood Prone Rivers – 1980
  • Integrated Watershed Development -1990
  • NWDPRA – 1994
  • National Rainfed Area Authority (NRAA) - 2006

Rainwater Harvesting & Rainfed Agriculture in India

  • All area under forest is rainfed, 80 % horticulture & 60 % netsown area is rainfed. 84 - 87 pulses, 77 % oilseeds, 60 % cotton and 50 % fine cereals contribute to rainfed agro-ecologies
  • Rainfed area supports 60 % of population
  • Productivity in irrigated area is 1.5 - 2 times more than rainfed farming. 75 % of the rain is received in 4 months (June to September)
  • Safe landing of runoff water in harvesting systems by nullahs
  • Sub-surface flow harvesting in water springs in hills and mountain ecosystem
  • Insitu rain conservation – regenerate and enhance biomass production, productivity and crop residues, reduces seasonal migration by 35 - 100%, enhance cropping intensity by 63.5 % and generate employment@182 person days/ha/annum, crop yield increase by 5 - 91% & raise groundwater level
  • Innovative agri-volatile system to double farmer income – ICAR CAZRI, Jodhpur
  • Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation will make optimal use of latest geospatial technology to rejuvenate Ganga River – together by National Mission for Clean Ganga, National Remote Sensing Center and Survey of India

Floods & Droughts – Water for Irrigation and Population Needs of India

  • Per capita availability of water for Brahmaputra (18, 417 m3), west flowing rivers (3, 640 m3), Mahanadi (2546 m3)
  • Average availability of water in India 2000 m3/person/year while minimum fixed by UN and World bank is 1700 m3/person/year (in Israel - 450 m3/person/year)
  • Water availability for households to be reduced from 85 to 70 % in next 15 - 20 years & increase food production from 240 mt in 2010 to 450 - 500 mt in 2050
  • Solutions – water harvesting, water management, waste water reclamation and introduce large scale drip and sprinkler irrigation
  • Water storage capacity is 200m3/person in India while in USA it is 5961m3/person
  • About 45, 000 large dams in world of which 46 % lie in China, 14 % in USA and 9 % in India
  • Storage capacity in USA is 65MHM while in India is 18 MHM
  • China aims to complete $80 billion project to divert waters form Yangtze River in south to Yellow River in north
  • Aswan Dam in Egypt can store 2 years of rainfall
  • Interlinking of rivers is the key idea
  • Unused waters flowing into sea in south states can be transferred to needed states like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka & AP

Sustainable Agriculture – Aligning Cropping Pattern with Availability of Water

  • Issues – water scarcity, reduction in cultivable land, high cost of crop input, lack of marketing network, avenue for value addition of farm produce and fluctuating market prices
  • Move to location specific ecosystem and study relation between organism and environment – resource conserving, socially supportive, commercially competitive and environmentally sound
  • Soil management – organic farming, on farm residue management
  • Water resource management – micro irrigation and mulches
  • Crop management – right time to sow, intercropping, integrated pest management
  • 10.4 % annual rain from pre-monsoon, 73.7 % from SW monsoon, 13.3 % from post-monsoon and 2.6 % from NE Monsoons
  • 30 % area receives less than 750 mm, 42 % receives b/w 750 - 1150 mm and 20 % b/w 1, 150 to 2, 000 mm & 8 % above 2000 mm
  • Cropping system – single, double
  • Selection of crops depends on soil moisture and soil depth
  • In first decade of green revolution cereals gained marginal increase & later it increased further
  • Rice –wheat: UP, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, West Bengal and MP – issues include over mining, Phalaris minor
  • Rice-Rice: Asom, W. Bengal, Odisha, TN, AP, Karnataka & Kerala – issues include Echinochloa crusgalli weed
  • Rice-oilseeds/pulses: east & south India
  • Pearl-millet based cropping: low rain area and light soils
  • Maize Wheat: Up, Rajasthan, MP, Bihar
  • Sugarcane-wheat: Up, Punjab, Haryana & Bihar – gaining up in Asom (Sonitpur, Sibsagar & Jorhat), Belgaum in Karnataka & Ahmednagar & Kolhapur in Maharashtra
  • Cotton-Wheat: Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, West UP, AP, TN & Karnataka
  • Legume Based cropping – pigeonpea/soybean-wheat in MP, groundnut-wheat in Gujarat and Maharashtra, groundnut-sorghum in AP & Karnataka

Women’s Role & Rights in Water Conservation and Irrigation

  • Less than 35 % women formally as primary worker in agriculture while males are around 81%
  • Women were 1st to domesticate crop plants and initiate crop farming
  • Women are 48.5 % of general population with agriculture as largest employer
  • Official statistics reveal 59 % men & 75 % women work in rural areas in agriculture
  • Promote new attitude for water resource use, mutual exchange of gender specific knowledge
  • By 2025, around 5.5 billion people or 2/3rd of world population will face water scarcity
  • Organic linkage and inherited knowledge, quality, reliability and storage methods
  • Gender based analysis of local situations
  • Equitable and sustainable irrigation policies
  • Correlation b/w independent land and irrigation rights for women
  • 👌 Pt. Deen Dayal Upadhayay Vigyan Gram Sankul Pariyojana – S & T interventions for sustainable development by cluster approach in Uttarakhand – post harvest processing of kiwi, strawberry, cherry, tulsi, adrak, elaichi by solar drying technology, extraction of apricot oil by cold press technology

📝 Conserving Water: Traditional Way

Indus Valley Civilization – Dholavira between 2 storm water channels

Chankaya’s Arthashastra – irrigation using water harvesting system

👌 Sringaverapura near Allahabad – use slope of land to store flood waters of Ganga river

Chola king Karikala built Grand Anicut across Cauvery to divert water for irrigation

King Bhoja of Bhopal built artificial lake (one of the largest in India)

  • Village tanks or ponds (available for 2 months after rain)

  • Jhalara – rectangular shaped stepwell

  • Talab or Bandhi – household and drinking purpose, if size is less than 5 bigha – talai, medium sized is bandhi and bigger lakesis sagar or samand

  • Tankas/kunds/kundis – underground structure to collect water in Rajasthan – circular hole and plaster it – West Rajasthan and Gujarat

  • Khadin – runoff farming and groundwater recharging system in Thar Desert – dhora which is long earthen embankment built across hill slopes of gravelly uplands – 1st by Paliwal Brahmins of Jaislmer in 15th century

  • Bavadi – traditional wells in Rajasthan and North India – rectangular with 3 - 4 side

  • Vav/baoli – structure of stepwell to draw water – beautifully crafted motifs

  • Nadi – village ponds that store water collected from natural catchment area – Jodhpur, Rajasthan

  • Ahar Pynes – artificial rivulets and flood harvesting system in south Bihar

  • Johads – recharge groundwater and earthen check dams to capture rainwater

  • PanamKeni – Wooden cylinder made by soaking stems of toddy palms in water so the core of the stem rots & outer hard layer remains – by Kuruma tribe (Wayanad)

  • Bhandra Phad – community managed irrigation system on 3 rivers of Tapi basin – Panjhra, Mosam and Aram in Dhule and Nasik of Maharashtra

  • Zings – Ladakh – small tanks that collect melthing glacial waters – water official Chirpun is responsible for equitable distribution

  • Kuhls – Surface water channels in mountain areas of Himachal Pradesh (Kangra valley)

  • Zabo – combine water harvesting with forestry, agriculture and animal care in Nagaland

  • Banboo Drip Irrigation – indigenous system by tribal farmers in Khasi and Jaintia hills to irrigate black-pepper farms

  • Jackwells – Shompen tribe of Great Nicobar – pits encircled by bunds made of hard wood logs – big jackwells are connected with bamboo for overflow supply of water

  • Ramtek Model – in Ramtek in Maharashtra – network of groundwater & surface water constructed by malguzars (landowners)

  • Pat system – divert waters from hills into irrigation channels – Bhitada village in Jhabua, MP & diversion bunds made with teak leaves

  • Eri – tank system of Tamil Nadu – oldest water management system in India – known as keres in C. Karnataka, cheruvus in AP & dongs in Asom

  • Hill slope collection system – Uttarakhand, HP, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh

  • Check dams and nalla bunding – embankment across small streams

  • Farm ponds – store water for life saving irrigation

  • Percolation tank – on small streams with adequate catchment

  • Sub-surface barrier – constructed below river bed on impervious subsurface strata

Water in Indian Constitution

  • Article 426 – laws made by Parliament and state – make laws under union, state and concurrent list
  • 👌 Article 262 – disputes relating to water (inter-state or river valley)
  • Entry 56 of List I of 7th Schedule – regulation and development of interstate rivers and river valleys
  • Entry 17 under List II of 7th Schedule - water supplies, irrigation, canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to provisions of Entry 56 of List I

👌 JalBharati – People’s Movement in Water Conservation

  • Create water literacy - knowledge, optimum use, awareness, prevent leakage, reduce consumption of substances that pollute water, reuse water
  • Water awareness – workshops
  • Water conservation – construct percolation ponds, model for rainwater harvesting and rejuvenate open wells, les chemicals, plant local saplings

National Hydrology Project

  • Repository of nationwide water resources data
  • Improve quality and accessibility of water resource information, decision support system for floods and basin level resource assessment
  • Real time monitoring, cloud computing and visualization of customized water information by various stakeholders

Bhakra Nangal Project and Its Irrigation Potential

Project for advancement of agriculture in Punjab, Haryana & Rajasthan

Power generation upto 1325 Megawatts

Irrigation of 16 million acre feet of water annually

Agricultural sector’s contribution of GDP is less than 13%

Of total arable lands -46 % land is under irrigation

Irrigation projects

  • Major – more than 10, 000 hectares

  • Medium – 2, 000 to 10, 000 hectares

  • Minor – less than 2, 000 hectares

Bhakra Dam – completed in 1963 on Satluj river near Bhakra Village in Bilaspur, HP

Second highest dam next to Tehri Dam

Also known as Gobind Sagar – can store 9340 million cubic meters of water over 165.35 square kilometers

Includes both Bhakra and Nangal Dam (13 km downstream of Bhakra)

Preparation of water account is done by dividing year into filling period (receiving water) and depletion period (utilization of water)

Others from Kurukshetra

👌 DISHA Portal – smart governance tool to monitor implementation of programs and schemes for different ministry by single portal developed for MPs and MLAs

Gram Samvaad – citizen centric mobile app giving single window access for citizens to information at Gram Panchayat level on various Rural Development Programs

Best iconic place awards – Golden Temple, Vaishno Devi and Meenakshi temple

Loading video

Irrigation & Water Conservation: Kurukshetra November 2017 Summary (Special Edition) (In - Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra November 2017: Irrigation & Water Conservation (Special Edition)

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: December 5, 2017


Monthy-updated, fully-solved, large current affairs-2018 question bank(more than 2000 problems): Quickly cover most-important current-affairs questions with pointwise explanations especially designed for IAS, CBSE-NET, Bank-PO and other competetive exams.