Journey of National Policy of Education 1968,1986 and 1992 (Implemented in 2005)

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The Government of India has formulated the National Policy on Education (NPE) to promote education amongst India՚s people. The policy covers basic education to colleges in both rural and urban India.

  • In this regard the first National Policy on Education was broadcast in 1968 by the government of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and the second by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in 1986 and then in 1992 by Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
  • After independence the Indian government constantly activated to improve education in rural and urban India, the government has established the University Education Commission in 1948 and secondary education commission in 1952.
National Policy of Education


  • Former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi has announced first National Policy on education in 1968 which was recognized as “radical restructuring” .

Key highlights of 1968 NPE:

  • Compulsory education for all children up to the age of 14, as specified by the Constitution of India.
  • Better training and qualification of teachers.
  • Pay more attention on learning of regional languages, outlining the “three language formula” to be applied in secondary education and that was:
  1. Hindi
  2. English
  3. Regional language
  • Because of Hindi was adopted as the national Language the policy put wait on learning Hindi to promote it as a common language for all Indians.
  • The policy also stimulated the teaching of the ancient Sanskrit language, which is an essential part of India՚s culture and heritage.
  • The NPE of 1968 also include increase in education spending to six percent of the national income.


  • In May 1986 the new National policy on education was introduce by Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi as earlier announced in January 1985. It was named as “Special emphasis on the removal of disparities and to equalize education opportunity” .
  • The main objective of this policy is to provide equivalent opportunity for all including Women, ST and SC communities to study.

Key highlights of 1986 NPE:

  • Expand scholarships.
  • Promote adult education.
  • Employing more teachers from the SCs and STs Communities.
  • Provide incentives for poor families to send their children to school regularly.
  • Develop of new institutions.
  • Provide housing and services.
  • For primary education the NPE called “child-cent red approach” , than “Operation Blackboard” was launched to expand primary schools nationwide.
  • Under this policy the Open University system was expanded with the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which had been created in 1985.
  • The policy was also recognized as “rural university” model, based on the philosophy of Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi, to encourage economic and social development at the grassroots level in rural India.


  • In 1992 the 1986 National Policy on Education was modified by the P. V. Narasimha Rao Government and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh has adopted it in 2005 which was recognized as “Common Minimum Programme” .

Key highlights of 1992 NPE:

  • All India bases common entrance examination for admission in all professional and technical programmes in the country.
  • Under this Government of India vide Resolution dated 18 October 2001 has laid down a Three - Exam Scheme For admission to Engineering and Architecture/Planning programmes:
  1. JEE
  2. AIEEE at the National Level
  3. SLEEE State Level Engineering Entrance Examinations
  • State Level Institutions have option to join AIEEE.
  • With this problem of overlapping and also reduce physical, mental and financial burden on students and their parents which was very high due to multiplicity of entrance examinations.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • National Education Policy 1992 and its terms of reference, aims of education, structure of education, curriculum and evaluation.

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