Kurukshetra 2019 Rural Education Recommendations (Download PDF)


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Recommendations: Ensure availability of a full complement staff of teachers in every school w/a focus on remote schools & remote districts. Strengthen BRCs & CRCs for teacher professional development. States should develop a strong core group of outstanding teacher education thru. A rigorous process of selection & professional development in partnership w/identified institutions. Make material for teachers & teacher educators available in state/local language.

Involving Local Communities In Rural Schools

  • Challenge is how to drastically improve female literacy rate which is still 58.75 % while literacy rate in SCs is 62.8% & only 56.9 % STs are literate in rural areas.

Quality of Education

  • Number of surveys conducted either by non-governmental organizations like ASER (Pratham) year after year indicate that more than 50 % children in class 5 are unable to read text prescribed in class 2 or govt’s. National Achievement Survey (NAS) which shows that average scores in many grades & subjects still ranges b/w 40 - 50%.
  • If quality of rural education is poor in terms of basic skills, knowledge & language efficiency required for number of jobs, it will affect chances of rural youth.
  • Self-help groups are grassroots initiatives by local communities to work together & help each other for creating opportunities & opening avenues for financial betterment of member families.
  • self-help groups Both Local bodies as well as self-help groups are best suited to lead & manage affairs of schools & colleges, They can play very crucial role in opening of schools & colleges, developing its infrastructure & managing & maintaining it as well as in monitoring performance of teachers & Students.

Self Help Groups in Education

  • Central & state Govt’s. are incorporating & actively promoting SHGs in many development programmer, For example, SHGs are playing a very crucial role in implementation of DAY NRLM scheme launched by central govt. SHGs are main drivers of financial inclusion. They are also actively used by govt. In service delivery.
  • SHGs know local problems & issues & can offer local solutions to rural schools.
  • SHGs can play an important role is managing mid-day meal in rural schools.
  • SHGs can play important role in dealing w/rampant problem of teachers absenteeism in rural school.

Teacher’s Education: Challenges & Reforms

  • Teacher education is a process for preparing professional teachers by inculcating necessary knowledge, competence, skills among them for teaching at various stages of school education.

Policy Perspective

  • Gol. set up many committees & commissions to improve quality of teachers & for their professional development.
  • University Education Commission (1948) recommended that theory & practice of pre-service teacher education must support each other.
  • Secondary Education Commission (1952 - 53) recommended.
  • There should be 2 types of training institutions (i) 2 years training for those who have take school leaving certificate & (ii) 1 year training for graduates.
  • NPE (1986) made 3 recommendations i. e. (i) teacher education as a continuous process & its pre-service & in-service components inseparable (ii) need for new programmes of teacher education to meet thrusts envisaged in policy (iii) need for creating new structures & strengthening institutions to concretize vision of NPE.

Recent Initiatives

  • Right to Education Act (2009) was implemented from 1st April, 2010 in which it is made mandatory to appoint trained teachers in schools.
  • NCERT has developed learning outcome for elementary teachers in diff. subjects.
  • National Initiative for School Heads’ & Teachers’ Holistic Advancement (NISTHA) Programme was initiated in August, 2019 for providing training to 42 lakh teachers & school heads by NCERT & NIEPA, New Delhi.
  • NCTE revised rules & regulations, norms & standard of 15 teacher education Programme during 2014 in light of recommendation of J. S. Verma Commission.
  • Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya Scheme on National Mission of Teacher & Teaching, an umbrella Scheme, was initiated during 2014 by MHRD for improving quality of teachers, teaching, professionalism & preparation of teachers.

Challenges & Problems

  • There are about 19000 teacher education institutions in country, of which 92 % are privately-owned & are largely in rural areas.
  • Most of independent teacher education institutions are in rural areas & running diff. courses in teacher education
  • There is resentment at few places among stakeholders facing problem of admission of students, equipment’s, physical facilities & qualified faculty etc.
  • During transaction of curriculum of diff. courses of teacher education programmes, it is observed that theory & practice, & content & pedagogy of these programmes are not integrated.
  • Some places they are teaching subjects which they have not studied at graduation & post graduation levels. It resulted into many complicated problems like drop out, absenteeism & low achievement among children.
  • Institutions like DIETs, CTEs, IASEs, SCERTs are not functioning according to its role & functions.
  • Teachers are working w/o professional degrees in teacher education colleges & universities.
  • Both teacher education & school education are working in isolation & does not have any relationship b/w two in curriculum & its translation.
  • There is no mechanism of Management Information System (MIS) on Teacher Education,
  • There is no permanent policy & mechanism for in-service education Programme for about 90 lakh teachers & teacher educators who are working in schools & teacher education institutions in country.
  • Long term training courses in a distance-cum-contact mode have not been conceptualized for in-service teachers.
  • Training material no mechanism to make available to teachers & teacher educators at field level.
  • Professional development course for college & university teachers is not organized systematically & scientifically at Human Resource Development Centres, Faculty Development Centres, & Teaching Learning Centres established in diff. universities.

Infrastructure development in School Education

  • During last two decades a major emphasis is given on improving school environment by dif. Educational programmes like Operation Blackboard, District Primary Education Programme (DPEP), Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA), & Samagra Siksha, in order to enhance regular participation of students & finally resulting in improvement in their learning levels.
  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) are residential upper primary schools set up in educationally backward blocks for girls from SC, ST, OBC & Minority communities.

Computer Aided Learning (CAL):

  • Main objective of CAL Programme is to attract rural children, retain them in schools & to improve quality of education thru. Animated multimedia based educational content.
  • Samagra Shiksha subsumes 3 Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) & Teacher Education (TE).

Towards Digital & Financial Literacy

  • Digital literacy brings w/I its ambit, an array of new technological advancements to be used for effective & safe communication. On other hand, financial literacy is ability to understand diff. areas & concepts of finance like financial planning budgeting, investment saving & much more.
  • Ease of transaction, time efficient transfer & all at comfort of an individual’s location of choice make UPI an important tool in achievement of an efficient & smooth financial network.

Financial Literacy in India

  • According to Organization for Economic Co-operation & Development (OECD) financial education means ‘process by which financial consumers/investors improve their understanding of financial products, concepts & risks & thru. Information, instruction &/or objective advice, develop skills & confidence to become more aware of financial risks & opportunities’.
  • Financial literacy means awareness about schemes, policies & all other services that banks & financial stakeholders offer.

Importance of Financial Literacy

  • Inclusive Growth & Financial Inclusion.
  • Familiarity & Ability.
  • Freedom from exploitation.
  • Prevention of over indebtedness.
  • Promotion of entrepreneurship.
  • Positive Spill-over effects.
  • Making Pension Responsibility an individual or personal affair & not that of State Corporation.
  • Behavioral Change.
  • More & better input in Financial Markets.

National Strategy for Financial Education (NSFE)

  • National Strategy for Financial Education is prepared in 2012 to being about a massive financial education campaign that would create awareness & would educate consumers on how to gain access to financial services.
  • As per National Strategy for Financial Education, key elements of financial literacy module should be as follows.
  • To understand that main financial products that one might need in course of one’s life ‘bank accounts, insurance, retirement saving plans & securities market investments like stocks, bonds & mutual funds’.
  • Getting to learn about fundamental financial concepts like investment return, compound interest, annuity, diversification, present & future value of money, so on & so forth.
  • Being more aware of financial risks & prospects & developing skills & self-reliance to gain profit from them.
  • Making well informed financial choices about “saving, spending, insurance, investing & managing debt throughout one’s life

Importance of Digital Literacy

To stay well-connected w/world & be in effective communicating developmental ideas & translating vision of rapid growth into reality, digital literacy is a must in today’s world.

  • Digital Saksharta Abhiyan (DISHA)
  • Digitize India Platform (DIP)
  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT)
  • AADHAR & AADHAAR Enabled Payment System

Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan: Accessible India Campaign or Sugamya Bharat Abhiyan is a program which is set to be launched to serve the differently-able community of the country. The program comes with an index to measure the design of disabled-friendly buildings and human resource policies.


  • This app is created to enable farmers to stay updated w/crop prices in order to ensure best market for sale of their crop & assess market conditions beforehand.

Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM)

  • This app makes bank transactions simple, swift & uncomplicated. It enables bank to bank direct transfer, which is done using a mobile phone.

Cyber Swachhta Kendra

VittiyaSaksharta Abhiyan (VISAKA)

  • MHRD, VISAKA is said to be “biggest digital transformation of country after Independence” Principle of ‘VittiyaSaksharta Abhiyan’ is to energetically connect Higher Education Institutions & their students & encourage All payers & payees to use a “digitally enabled cashless economic system” for their fund transfer.

Central findings of Pilot schools

  • It is seen that most schools could not even start process of preparation of School improvement plan, & some of main reasons were 1) Non-cooperation from other teachers/school authorities 2) Not able to priorities importance of this program 3) Not able to identify & constitute teams 4) Work hygiene (responsibilities, meetings, recordings etc) 5) Inability to identity correct priorities, set realistic targets, & class room level actions 6) Inability to use data to sort priorities, 6) Inability to review performance, take course corrections & so on.

Key Topics

  • Digital Literacy
  • Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)
  • All India Survey of Higher Education (AISHE)
  • National Initiative for School Heads & Teachers Holistic Advancement (NISHTHA)
  • New Education Policy (NEP)
  • NITI Aayog
  • Right to Education Act (RTA Act)
  • National Educational Alliance for Technology (NEAT)
  • Teacher Education (TE)
  • Self Help Groups Education (SHGs)
  • Improve Quality of Teachers

- Published/Last Modified on: November 20, 2019


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