Kurukshetra April 2017 Comprehensive Summary / Gist: Horticulture in India (Download PDF)

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Key Facts: High yield per unit area, High returns per unit area, Efficient use of wasteland, Better use of undulating lands, Employment, Nursery business and mushroom cultivation, India has emerged as world’s largest producer of coconut, India is leading producer & exporter of tea, coffee, cashew, species, fresh & processed fruits, cut flowers & dried flowers.

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Kurukshetra April 2017 Summary: Horticulture in India

Dr. Manishika Jain in this lecture presents the summary of Kurukshetra April 2017 edition.

Image of Horticulture Kurukshetra

Image of Horticulture Kurukshetra

Image of Horticulture Kurukshetra

Key Facts

  • 30.4 % of GDP
  • 13 % of total cropped area
  • 20 % labour force
  • Horticulture prod. > foodgrain (for last 3 yrs)
  • Fruits: Banana (33.4%), Mango (20.7%), Citrus (12.5%) – AP, Maha, Karna. (8 states with 70 % area)

India is Leading Producer

  • Mango
  • Banana
  • Pomegranate
  • Sapota
  • Lime
  • Aonla
  • Peas
  • Okra
  • Species (largest producer & exporter)

India is 2Nd Leading Producer

  • Brinjal
  • Cabbage
  • Cauliflower
  • Onion

India is 3rd Leading Producer

  • Potato
  • Tomato

Key Facts

  • Highest horticulture produce: UP > WB > Gujarat > MP
  • Highest fruit prod: Maha > AP > Gujarat
  • Highest vegetable prod: WB > UP > Bihar
  • Small farmers take lead in horticultural produce
  • Jamnagar refinery complex – produce 127 mango varieties in 600 acre land – beat Israel and Brazil in productivity
  • 240 million acre of culturable wasteland can be brought under orchards

Highest Productivity

  • Banana – Indonesia (worldwide)
  • Banana: MP > Gujarat
  • Mango: Andhra Pradesh
  • Citrus; Karnataka, Punjab & Rajasthan
  • Max. vegetable production: WB > UP > Bihar
  • India – 2nd largest producer in world in vegetables and fruits
  • Cabbage – N. Korea > Japan
  • Brinjal: Spain > China

Floriculture

  • “low volume, high value”
  • Known nations: Netherlands, Colombia, Ecuador & Belgium
  • Leading states (area) – TN, Karnataka, WB
  • Export: US, Netherlands, Germany
  • Vegetable export to Sri Lanka, USA, UAE, Spain
  • Grapes export to UK, Netherlands
  • Fruit export to Bangladesh, UAE, Saudi Arabia

Floriculture –Challenges

  • High import tariff
  • Low availability of perishable carriers
  • High freight rate
  • Inadequate refrigeration & transport

Mushroom Cultivation

  • Started in 1960’s in Solan with Germany
  • 1980s – white button mushroom in J&K & HP
  • Button mushroom – HP, UP, Punjab, Haryana
  • Seasonal mushroom – Solan, Kangra
  • Best source of Vit. B
  • Rich in Vit. D; Low calorie – 90 % water
  • High estrogen – reduces cancer
  • Rich in potassium, selenium & antioxidants
  • Require 80 - 90 % relative humidity
  • Susceptible to Dry bubble (brown spot), wet bubble (white mould), cobweb, green mould, false truffle
  • Minimum land size is 1.5 acres

Schemes

  • National Horticultural Mission – now part of MIDH
  • Horticulture mission for NE and Hilly Areas
  • Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana
  • 12th Plan: Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) – includes Bamboo, coconut mission as well
  • Indian Institute of Horticultural research (1967) – Hesaraghatta (Bengaluru)
  • Dr. YS Parmar University – Solan (HP) - 1985

MIDH – Launched 2014 - 15

  • 3 centrally Sponsored Scheme
  1. National Horticulture Mission (2004 - 05)
  2. Horticulture Mission for NE & Himalayan States (2001 - 02)
  3. National Bamboo Mission (2001 - 02)
  • 3 central sector scheme
  1. National Horticulture Board (1984-Gurugaon)
  2. Coconut Development Board (1981- Kochi)
  3. Central Institute of Horticulture, Nagaland (2006-Medziphema)

ARYA

  • Attracting and Retaining Youth in Agriculture
  • Establish network groups
  • Develop capital intensive activities
  • Demonstrate functional linkages
  • Partnered with ICAR

READY

  • Rural Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana
  • Experiential learning
  • In-plant training
  • Hands-on-training
  • Rural awareness work experience
  • Student projects

Importance in Diet

  • Curb protein energy malnutrition
  • Iron deficiency – Spinach, jiggery, pomegranate, figs
  • Iodine deficiency
  • Vit. A deficiency – carotenoids – green leafy vegetables

Challenges

  • Productivity enhancement
  • Value addition & reduction in post-harvest losses
  • Protected cultivation: Indo-Israel center for Excellence in Vegetables at Gharaunda (Karnal) – set green house or polyhouse
  • Streamline agricultural produce: Agri-tech Infrastructure Fund for online integration of agricultural produce market committee
  • Integrated pest management strategies
  • Use of bio-resources
  • Mitigate climate change
  • Mass destruction
  • Multiplicity of intermediaries

Improving Productivity by Biotechnology

  • Tissue culture – 2nd green revolution & gene revolution
  • Embryo rescue
  • Genetic engineering
  • GM crops
  • Molecular diagnostics
  • Banana – from 15kg/plant to 50
  • Cardamom – from 70 kg/ha to 250 kg/ha
  • Papaya – transgenic varieties

- Published/Last Modified on: November 21, 2017

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