Kurukshetra December -2018 Science & Technology for Rural India (Part-3) (Download PDF)


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Prevent Soil erosion: Several other measures are mulching, minimum tillage, no-till by direct seeding, strip cropping, agroforestry, shelter belts, & reduced stocking rates & grazing intensities, Increase soil organic matter content

  • Soil Nutrient Balance & Cycles
  • Mitigating Soil Salinization & Alkalinization
  • Minimizing soil contamination
  • Conserving soil Biodiversity
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Science and Technology for Rural India - Kurukshetra December 2018 (In English)

Kurukshetra December 2018: Science and Technology for Rural India is explained in this lecture Key Topics included in this Article

Table of contain shows Technological options for soil health management

Table of contain shows Technological options for soil health management



No till

Reside mulch

Integrated nutrient


Cover cropping

Farming systems




Degraded land


Salinized land

Mined land

Depleted land

Application of Organic amendments




Use of ICTs in Education

  • Enhancing technological competencies of teachers during both pre-service & in-service teachers training.
  • Primary focus of ET or usages of Information & Communication Technologies (ICTs) in education remain learning.
  • So, overall technology should be used in providing quality education to 26 cr. students studying in 15 lakh schools (66 % under govt. control) having 85 lakh teachers w/majority of schools (close to 84%) falling in rural areas of country.
  • 👌Union Budget, 2018 - 19, has proposed to start ‘Samagra Shiksha’ an overarching programme for school education sector extending from pre-school to class 12 by subsuming erstwhile Schemes of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) & Teacher Education (TE).
  • 👌Main outcomes of Scheme are envisaged as Universal Access, Equity & Quality, promoting Vocationalisation of Education & strengthening of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs).

e- Pathshala

  • GOI has launched e- Pathshala (epathshala. nic. in) portal & mobile app (for all 3 mobile platforms, viz. , android, windows, ios) in 2015.
  • A joint initiative of Ministry of Human Resource Development & NCERT, this portal/app has all textbooks of NCERT from Class I to XII in digital form.
  • National Repository of Open Educational Resources (nroer. gov. in) was launched in 2013.
  • It is a storehouse of all types of e-contents (more than 13000 contents are available now) arranged thematically & mapped according to NCERT curriculum.
  • A bouquet of channels (32 DTH TV channels to be precise) was launched by Hon’ble President of India on 9^th July 2017 under SWAYAM PRABHA initiative.
  • Purpose of this initiative is to telecast high-quality educational programs on these 32 channels on 24×7 basis using GSAT-! 5 satellite.
  • Contents are provided by NPTEL, IITs, UGC, CEC, IGNOU, NCERT & NIOS.
  • SWAYAM, an acronym for Study Webs of Active- Learning for Young Aspiring Minds, is a digital platform which hosts several courses offered by best teachers of universities/colleges/schools free of cost to students living in any part of country.
  • It’s a massive platform because students in very number can join any course.
  • MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) is an excellent example of use of internet in education.
  • Thru. MOOCs, we tend to achieve all three concerns of our education, viz. , access, quality & equity.
  • ShaGun portal (http://seshagun.nic.in/) was launched by MHRD, GOI last year to monitor progress of SSA scheme on regular basis & also to make this portal a repository of best practices, innovations, success stories & resources available in States/Union territories (UTs).
  • ShaGun stands for Shala meaning schools & Gunvatta implying quality.
  • 👌Shaala Siddhi (http://www.shaalasiddhi.nuepa.org) launched by National Institute of Educational Planning & Administration (NIEPA), New Delhi aims to improve school functioning by evaluating schools holistically on 7 key domains such as,
  1. Enabling resource of schools,
  2. Teaching-learning & assessment,
  3. Learners progress attainment,
  4. Teacher performance,
  5. Leadership & mgmt. ,
  6. Inclusion health & safety,
  7. Productive community participation.
  • Kendriya Vidyalaya’s Shaala Darpan is an e-govt. platform for all KV schools in country to improve quality of learning, efficiency of school administration, governance of schools & service delivery to key stakeholders.
  • DIKSHA (http://diksha.gov.in/), a joint initiative of MHRD & National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) was launched by Hon’ble Vice President this year to make one stop resource for all requirements of a teacher.

Bio Fertilizers for Sustainable Food Production

  • It has been observed that up to 90 % of applied P-fertilizer (Phosphorus fertilizer) is rendered unavailable for crop uptake due to fixation.
  • Fungi, which from symbiotic association w/roots of plants are referred as mycorrhizal fungi & association itself is referred to as “mycorrhizae”.
  • 👌Currently, VAM (Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhiza) as biofertilizer are utilized in fumigated soils, greenhouse crops, & in reclamation of disturbed sites.
  • Main function of mycorrhiza is to dissolve fixed phosphate available as insoluble phosphate in rhizosphere zone i. e. zone in soil surrounding roots & make it available to plants thru hypha roots which are tube like structure that these fungi leave into rhizosphere zone thru which dissolved phosphate reaches roots.
  • Mycorrhiza also helps in dissolution of trace elements which are in form of insoluble compounds due to high alkalinity & make them available to plants.
  • These fungi synthesize certain chemicals like HCN (Hydrogen Cyanide) etc. & release them in rhizosphere zone.
  • Mycorrhiza also helps during nitrogen fixation because phosphate requirement in nitrogen fixation.

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM):

  • These are most common mycorrhizae, first to evolve & members of Glomeromycota, they are obligate biotrophs & associated w/roots of about 80 % of plant species, including many crop plants.

Ericoid endomycorrhizae:

  • Fungi are members of Ascomycota (eg. Hymenoscyphus ericae).
  • Plant’s rootlets are covered w/has parse network of hyphae; fungus digests polypeptides saprotrophically (extracellular digestion) & passes absorbed nitrogen to plant host.


  • Ectomycorrhizal fungi are mainly Basidiomycota & include common woodland mushrooms, such as Amanita spp. most advanced symbiotic association b/w higher plants & fungi involving about 3 % of seed plants including majority of forest trees.
Image of Inoculation Methods

Image of Inoculation Methods

Image of Inoculation Methods

Inoculation Methods:

  • VAM inoculum is now commercially available in India.
  • VAM is now available in 1 kg pack costing Rs. 100 under trade name “Ecorrhiza” & “Josh” respectively.
  • For one acre of land, 4 - 5 kg of VAM inoculums is sufficient which can be mixed w/200 kg of powdered cow dung manure/FYM/soil & mixed in fields uniformly while preparing fields.

Renewable Energy Adoption for Rural Areas

  • A village is deemed “electrified”, if at least 10 % of households & public places such as schools & health centres are connected & receive electricity from grid, thru transformer established in village.
  • This would still have 90 % of people living in these villages “un- electrified”.
  • Govt. did embark on an ambitious $2.5 billion program named “Saubhagya”, in order to provide power connections to every household by end of March 2019.
  • While process of electrification involves 3 steps, first being extension of infrastructure to village, followed by connecting household, last & most critical & challenging part would be to ensure supply of reliable & affordable energy that is sustainable.
  • It is a known fact that India relies on coal, to meet 60 % of its electricity demands.
  • Energy is a critical factor & foundation for economic growth & social progress.
  • While hydroelectricity refers to potential & kinetic energy of water being converted into electricity in hydroelectric plants, geothermal energy is available as heat emitted from w/I earth’s crust, usually in form of hot water or steam.
  • It is used either for electricity generation, heat production for sale to third parties or directly as heat in its primary form.
  • Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) is promoting multifaceted biomass gasifier based power plants for producing electricity using locally available biomass resources such as wood chips, rice husk, arhar stalks, cotton stalks & other agro-residues in rural areas.
  • Co- ops are autonomous associations of people united voluntarily, in order to satisfy their mutual economic, social, & cultural needs & aspirations thru jointly owned & consensually controlled enterprise.
  • Viardot (2013) deliberates upon number of possible constraints to RE adoption & tries to address how RE co-ops can minimize them.
  • These constraints include:
  1. Unfamiliarity w/technology,
  2. Lack of awareness of environmental benefits,
  3. Opinion that technology is unreliable,
  4. Belief that technology can have harmful side effects,
  5. Unsuitable location for installation,
  6. Inability to access sufficient credit,
  7. Invested capital needed elsewhere, &
  8. Fear of administrative work involved in RE systems.
  • What’s more, co-ops develop projects on local sites, responding to constraint of location & availability of RE.
  • GOI should consider setting up of solar plants thru a large number of Renewable Energy Cooperatives rather than thru setting up Mega Solar parks.
  • It is better to set up 500 numbers of 1 MW plant in each village rather than setting up a single 500 MW in one location.
  • Grossbardorf, a village in Germany runs a successful microgrid rural cooperative model that generates four times electricity needed to power individual businesses & homes of community.
  • A biomass-based rural cooperative in Tumkur district of Karnataka owes its success to institutional aspects like well-defined property rights in ownership, institutionalised markets & decentralised environmental governance.
  • Biomass is derived thru tree-based farming, which provides employment to 30 households.

Other Important Notes

📝Digital Health Services: Some key Initiatives

  • mSakhi: is an award-wining mobile phone app to help health workers in providing high-quality health care to families in even remotest villages in different parts of Country.
  • Kilkari app: Kilkari, which means ‘a baby’s gurgle’, delivers free, weekly, time-appropriate 72 audio message about pregnancy, child birth & child care directly to families mobile phones from second trimester of pregnancy until child is one year old.
  • Mobile Academy: It is a free audio training course designed to expand & refresh knowledge base of Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) & improve their communication skills.
  • M-Cessation: This programme being provided as part of any mHealth initiative, aims at reaching out to those willing to quit tobacco use & support them towards successful quitting thru text messages sent via mobile phones.
  • e-Hospital: It is an online registration services framework portal where people can avail online service such as registration & appointment, pay fees, view diagnostics reports & check for availability of blood in govt. hospitals in this portal.
  • 👌ANM On Line (ANMOL): ANMOL is aims to improve quality, effectiveness & timeliness of delivery of quality services, specially to rural populations, to ensure better healthcare for women & children.
  • Mera Aspataal: It is a GOI initiative by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, to capture patient feedback for services received at hospital thru user- friendly multiple channels such as Short Message Service (SMS), Outbound Dialling (OBD) mobile application & web portal.

New Scheme to Promote young Entrepreneurs in Cooperatives

  • 👌To cater to needs & aspirations of youth, National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) has come up w/a youth-friendly scheme ‘Yuva Sahakar-Cooperative Enterprise Support & Innovation Scheme’ for attracting them to cooperative business ventures.
  • Scheme will be linked to Rs. 1000 cr. ‘Cooperative Start-up & Innovation Fund (CSIF) ’ created by NCDC.
  • It would have more incentives for cooperatives of North Eastern region, Aspirational Districts & cooperatives w/women or SC or ST or PwD members.
  • Funding for project will be up to 80 % of project cost for these special categories as against 70 % for others.
  • NCDC, being most preferred financial institution in world of cooperatives, has also embarked on Sahakar 22, a Mission for Doubling Farmers Income by 2022.
  • It is an ISO 9001: 2015 compliant organisation & has a distinctive edge of competitive financing.

Jharakhand to become ODF by 15th November, 2018

Digital Technology in Financial Inclusion

  • 👌To expand network of ATMs, RBI has allowed non-bank entities to start ATMs (called ‘White Label ATMs’).
  • Financial Literacy Centers were started by commercial banks at request of RBI to give awareness & education to public to access financial products.
  • As a part of its financial inclusion plan, RBI started Business Correspondent model in 2006.
  • Business Correspondents (BCs) are representatives by banks to act as their agents, who provide banking services in remote locations, where bank may not have a presence.
  • 👌Rupay Kisan Cards have been providing impetus to cashless transactions among farming community.
  • NABARD has extended support to Cooperative banks & RRBs in procuring EMV chip-based Rupay Kisan Cards.
  • To Promote digital transactions for personal consumption expenditure, two schemes viz.
  • Lucky Grahak Yojana & Digi Vyapara Yojana were funded thru Financial Inclusion Fund for consumers & merchants respectively.
  • 👌National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) determines winners for cash rewards by choosing them thru an electronic draw of lots from amongst digital transaction IDs generated from 8 Nov. 2016, during course of such transactions.
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Science and Technology for Rural India - Kurukshetra December 2018 (In Hindi)

Kurukshetra December 2018: Science and Technology for Rural India is explained in this lecture Key Topics included in this Article

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- Published/Last Modified on: January 10, 2019


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