Kurukshetra February 2019: Boosting Agricultural Growth (Part-2) (Download PDF)


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Micro-Irrigation for Agricultural Growth: According to National Water Policy (2012) by Ministry of Water Resources, GoI, water saving in irrigation is given vital importance to achieve water use efficiency. Micro Irrigation is innovative water saving technology in which water is directly supplied to crops w/very less conveyance & evaporation losses.

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Boosting Agricultural Growth: Kurukshetra February 2019 (In English)

Boosting Agricultural Growth: Kurukshetra February 2019 is explained in this lecture

  • Diff. types of systems are:

o Drip irrigation

o Sprinkler irrigation

o Micro-sprinkler

o Porous pipe system

o Rain gun

  • Sprinkler irrigation is mainly used for groundnut, wheat, millet, sorghum, mustard etc.

Benefits of Micro Irrigation

  • PMKSY considered micro irrigation as its integral part due to enhanced water productivity & water use efficiency thru its proximity & focused water application.
  • Across 13 states consists of 5892 beneficiaries of National Mission on Micro Irrigation (NMMI), following advantages are listed as compared to traditional surface flooding method:

o Increase in water use efficiency

o Energy Efficiency

o Fertilizer Use Efficiency

o Productivity increase

o Irrigation cost saving

o New crop introduction

o Increase in farmers’ income

  • Micro irrigation leads to substantial increase in farm income, larger area of cultivation, low cost of cultivation especially irrigation cost & weeding cost, increased yield of produce, enhanced quality of crops w/optimum water use efficiency.
  • Drip irrigation w/mulching is used to prevent evaporation, maintain moisture, reduce weed growth, mitigate soil erosion & improve soil conditions. Mulching can help to improve crop yield & optimize water use.

Technology Promotion

  • Micro-irrigation is given special importance in PMKSY w/aim of extending irrigation cover (‘Har Khet Ko Pani’) & improving water use efficiency (‘Per Drop More Crop’) to improve various water development & mgmt. activities.
  • Aga Khan Rural Support program (AKRSP), NGO is working in Gujarat & International Development Enterprises (IDE), non-profit voluntary organization is working in Maharashtra.
  • Gujarat has established ‘Gujarat Green Revolution Company (GGRC) Limited’ in 2005. It provides necessary infrastructure for crop cultivation under adverse climatic conditions & help to develop market linkage for produces & to enhance economic conditions of small & marginal farmers.

Effective Implementation of Technology

  • Reasons for Problems of Micro Irrigation programme implementation:

o Energy crisis due to power outages & unscheduled interruptions across rural & urban India.

o Expensive micro irrigation: Most of adopters are wealthier farmers & poor farmers cannot afford it.

o 2 types of micro irrigation system

⁻ Low cost micro irrigation technologies

⁻Commercialized state-of-the-art micro irrigation systems.

o Declining landholdings & farm income

o’ Per Drop More Crop’ Fallacy

  • Major disadvantage of solar panel enabled micro irrigation system is that farmers have to schedule irrigation during sunshine hours only.

Streamlining Storage and Marketing

  • Govt. is focusing on efficient functioning of agriculture sector both in terms of its productivity & marketing.
  • Supply of agricultural products is characterized by instability, both quantitative & qualitative. This leads to absence of spontaneous adjustment of supply to meet demand for agricultural products.
  • Storage & proper transportation is most imp. aspect of food supply chain that ensures food security & round-the-year quality food supply of country.
  • Quantitative & qualitative losses occur during storage due to physiological changes, insects, rodents & micro-organisms.

Strengthening Cold Storage/Warehousing

  • Cold Storage plays vital role in reducing post-harvest loses of edible commodities by increasing their storability & shelf-life.
  • At present, 6227 cold stores are available in India w/storage capacity upto 3000 million tons.
  • Present requirement of cold storage capacity for food products is around 61 million tons in India.
  • Govt. has invested Rs. 45,000 cr. for creation of warehousing facilities across country b/w 2018 - 20.
  • 2 prominent changes have created significant growth prospects in warehousing are implementation of GST in India & creating unified taxation & rapid growth of e-commerce necessitating building of large scale warehousing across various locations.

Agricultural Marketing in India

  • Agricultural Marketing starts w/decision to produce saleable farm commodity. It involves all aspects of market system, based on technical & economic considerations.
  • It includes pre & post-harvest operations, assembling, grading, storage, transportation & distribution or marketing.
  • Marketing system performs function of discovering prices at diff. stages of marketing & transmitting price signals in marketing chain.
  • Agriculture Marketing in India promotes efficient use of resources in production & distribution systems.

Govt. Initiatives for improving Agricultural Marketing

  • §Present policy framework for intervention in agricultural markets & prices can be broadly grouped under 3 categories –

⁻Regulatory measures

⁻Market infrastructure & institutions

⁻Agricultural price policy

Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee Regulation (APMC) Act

  • Act mandates that scale or purchase of agricultural commodities, notified under Act, is to be carried out in specified market areas, yards or sub-yards.
  • These markets are required to have proper infrastructure for sale of farmers’ produce.

Advantages of APMC Act

o Removal of several malpractices & imperfections from agricultural markets.

o Creation of transparent marketing conditions.

o Ensuring a fair price to farmers to sell their produce.

  • APMC Acts be amended to allow for direct marketing & establishment of agricultural markets in pvt. & cooperative sectors.

Model APMC Act, 2003

  • Under model APMC Act, pvt. sector & cooperative can be licensed to set up markets.

E-NAM-An Electronic Portal for Agriculture Marketing

  • e-NAM networks existing Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMC) mandis to create unified national market for agricultural commodities.
  • Small Farmers Agri-business Consortium (SFAC) is leading agency for implementation of e-NAM. 585 regulated mandis in 14 states are linked w/e-NAM.
  • Main purpose of establishing e-NAM is to promote uniformity in agriculture marketing by streamlining of procedures across integrated markets, removing information asymmetry b/w buyers & sellers & promoting real time price discovery based on actual demand & supply.

Paramparagat Krishi Vikas Yojana (PKVY)

  • Aims at supporting & promoting organic farming thru adoption of organic village by cluster approach & PGS certification.
  • Scheme encourages farmers to adopt eco-friendly concept of cultivation & reduce their dependence on fertilizers & agricultural chemicals.

Boosting Agriculture through Agri-Business

  • Agribusiness sector involves 4 diff. sub-sectors:

⁻Agricultural inputs

⁻Agricultural production


⁻Marketing & Trade

  • Agribusiness covers crop production, distribution, agrichemicals, fodder, breeding, farm equipments, seed supply, raw & processed commodities of food & fibre, storage, transportation, packing, soil testing, marketing, retail sales & more.

Govt. efforts to Promote Agri-business

  • ICAR has taken lead to initiate network of 25 Agri-business Incubation (ABI) Centres in diff. states under National Agriculture Innovation Fund (NAIF) Scheme.
  • ABI centres provide services like research support, business planning, office space, access to information & communication technologies & advice on mgmt. , marketing, technical, legal & financial issues.
  • Technologies available for Start-Ups, Entrepreneurs & Innovators:

o Eco-friendly preparation of absorbent cotton for medical & hygiene products which are Antimicrobial & provide UV


o Water repellency Nano-finishing Technologies for Cotton Textiles.

o Cotton rich blends for functional textile applications.

o Innovative Finishing processes for garments & home textiles: Mosquito repellent, pesticide protection cloths & denim

o Software module for non-metameric color matching in textiles.

o Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology (CIRCOT) Calibration Cotton for global outreach.

o Sustainable business model for cotton at village level:

⁻Quality based trading

⁻Supply chain logistics for chipped cotton stalk supply.

⁻Value addition to cotton biomass.

⁻CIRCOT mini card for silver preparation

o Microbial Degossypolisation of cottonseed meal for poultry, fish & piggery sectors

o Cotton Trading based on Quality Parameters for better price & remuneration to Farmers.

  • Major enterprises being considered in ‘ARYA’ include Apiary, Mushroom, Seed Processing, poultry, Dairy, Goatry, Carp-hatchery, Vermi-compost etc. This provides opportunities to unemployed rural youth in primary & secondary agriculture & related enterprises.

Student Rural Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana (READY):

o Student READY is essential course module for award of degree at Bachelors level to ensure hands on training & practical experience depending on requirements of respective discipline in agricultural Universities.

o This programme includes 5 components:

o Experiential Learning

o Rural Awareness Works Experience (RAWE)

o In Plant Training/Industrial attachment

o Hands-on training

o Student Project

  • Agricultural Produce & Livestock Marketing Act, 2017 provides for alternative marketing channels in addition to APMCs to farmers in marketing their produce at competitive & remunerative prices.
  • State/UT Agricultural Produce & Livestock Contract Farming & Services Act, 2018 encompasses entire value & supply chain from pre-production to post-harvest marketing including services contract for agricultural produce & livestock.
  • Govt. is implementing Market Research & Information Network (MRIN) Scheme covering 3355 wholesale mandies linked to Agmarknet portal, wherein APMCs markets are reporting data on mandi arrivals & prices of their traded agricultural commodities on daily basis.
  • PM-AASHA implements Price Support Scheme (PSS) for procurement of pulses, oilseeds & copra. For oilseeds, DAC&FW implements Price Deficiency Payment Scheme (PDPS).
  • Govt. has approved increase in MSPs for all Rabi crops for 2018 - 19 at level at least 150 % of cost of production.
  • PM-AASHA, procurement for paddy, wheat & coarse grains at MSP are done 1: 7, Dept. of Food Corporation of India (FCI).
  • PMKSY has 7 planks:

o Mega Food Parks

o Integrated Cold Chain & Value Addition Infrastructure

o Infrastructure for Agro-Processing Clusters

o Creation of Backward & Forward Linkages

o Creation/Expansion of Food Processing & Preservation Capacities

o Food Safety & Quality Assurance Infrastructure

o Human Resources & Institutions

  • ‘Operation Green’ for integrated development of Tomato, Onion & Potato (TOP) crops value chain, w/outlay of Rs. 500 cr. is launched.

Irrigation: Key Inputs for Agriculture

  • According to Food & Agriculture Organization of UN (FAO), highest yields that can be obtained from irrigation are more than double highest yields that can be obtained from rainfed agriculture.
  • Irrigation increases crop output for various reasons:

o 1st, irrigation facility encourages farmers to use better varieties & other bio-chemical technologies which obviously lead to increased productivity.

o 2nd, cropping pattern followed in irrigated area is superior to that of un-irrigated area so output of crop is invariably higher under irrigated land.

o 3rd, irrigation facility allows farmer to use land more intensively throughout year w/higher level of cropping intensity.

o 4th, risk in getting assured output from crops cultivated due to moisture stress is very high under un-irrigated land while it is much less in irrigated land.

  • Major objective of PMKSY is to achieve convergence of investments in irrigation at field level, expand cultivable area under assured irrigation, improve on-farm water use efficiency to reduce wastage of water, enhance adoption of precision-irrigation & other water saving technologies, enhance recharge of aquifers & introduce sustainable water conservation practices by exploring feasibility of refusing treated municipal based water for peri-urban agriculture & attract greater pvt. investment in precision irrigation system, thus bringing much desired rural prosperity.
  • PMKSY has 4 components:

o Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) & Command Area Development & Water Management (CADWM)

o Har Khet Ko Pani (HKKP)

o Per Drop More Crop (PDMC)

o Watershed Development (WD)

  • Under PMKSY, 99 ongoing Makor/Medium irrigation projects w/ultimate irrigation potential of 76.03 lakh ha. Are prioritized during 2016 - 17, in consultation w/18 diff. states, for completion in mission mode by December 2019.

Accelerating Productivity through Irrigation Management

Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program (AIBP)

  • Objective of scheme was to provide Central Loan Assistance (CLA) to MMI projects to encourage & expedite completion of ongoing projects.
  • Govt. further improved program & prioritized 99 irrigation projects which were supposed to completed by Dec. , 2019.
  • Program is include under PMKSY, targeted irrigation potential to be created for these 99 projects taken together is 7.6 million hectare.

Potential Interventions for Improved Irrigation Management:

Accelerate & Improve ‘AIBP’

  • Program is for improving irrigation potential utilization thru faster completion of on-going projects.
  • Recent initiative of providing loans/grants thru ‘Long Term Irrigation Fund (LTIF) ’ & linking it w/NABARD has met w/some success.

Enhanced Use of Underground Pipe Line (UGPL) & Canal Based Micro-Irrigation Systems

  • To overcome long-drawn & costly process of land acquisition for laying out On-Farm Development (OFD) works like sub-minors, channels etc. implementing agencies should consider replacing these w/underground pipeline systems.
  • These systems dramatically raise water use efficiency & farm productivity.

Use of Improved Irrigation Techniques at Farm Level

  • Laser Land Levelling: It replaces inefficient operations of traditional soil scrapping after tillage operations. One machine can cover abt 400 ha during season & farmer need to do it once in 3 years. It increases yields by average 8 % for both crops. Saves electricity by abt. 755 kWh per hectare per year for rice-wheat systems.
  • Cultivation on raised beds: Permanent raised beds are suitable for regions w/higher & uncertain rainfalls, heavy soils, wide thermal variations & farming systems requiring shorter crop turn-around time.
  • Improved irrigation Mgmt. for Rice Crop: Thru ‘Alternate Wetting & Drying’, successful rice crop w/lesser water inputs can be cultivated
  • System of Rice Intensification (SRI): Success of SRI is based on synergetic development of both tillers & roots. Rice yields under SRI are increased by 20 - 50%.

Large Scale Adoption of Micro-Irrigation Systems (Drip & Sprinklers)

  • W/micro-irrigation, benefits are observed:

o Increase in yield upto 100 % are observed

o Saves water upto 70 % compared to flood irrigation. More land can be irrigated w/water thus saved.

o Crop grows consistently, uniformly, healthier & matures early.

o Fertilizer use efficiency increases by abt 30%

o Cost of fertilizers, inter-cultural operations & labour use gets reduced.

o Fertilizer & agro-chemical application can be given thru Micro Irrigation System itself.

o Best insurance against droughts, dry spells, heat & cold waves & protection to young plants.

  • Use of Solar Photovoltaic Pumps which can be used both for irrigation & scale of excess electricity produced during peak hours.
  • Use of Soil Health Cards for precise & right application of nutrients, registration under PMFBY to have insurance against droughts, floods & heat & cold waves, creating appropriate irrigation infrastructure & providing ‘Har Khet Ko Pani’ thru funds & guidance available under PMKSY.

Other Imp Notes

  • ‘Farmers’ Welfare is primary goal of govt. ‘s agricultural policy.
  • In last 4 years, agricultural credit flow has increased by 57 % to Rs. 11 lakh cr. & interest subsidy is increased by one & half times to Rs. 15000 cr.
  • To increase income of farmers, 546 FPO is constituted by SFAC besides State Govt. & FPOs of NABARD during tenure of present Govt.

ICAR-Driver of Agricultural Research & Extension in India

  • ICAR established in 1929 is dedicatedly serving nation as apex body of agricultural research, education & extension.
  • It operates innovative & robust system thru its 692 Krishi Vigyan Kendras.
  • It is leading nation towards attaining sustainable food, nutritional & livelihood security thru agricultural research & extension.

Rural Plan – Theme of SIWAM’s Sanitation Park

  • Rural toilet pan is central design theme Sanitation Park set up w/I campus of Collectorate of Siwan in Bihar. Highlight of park is sculpture of ‘Thinker’ similar to that created by French artist Auguste Rodin.
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Boosting Agricultural Growth: Kurukshetra February 2019 (In Hindi)

Boosting Agricultural Growth: Kurukshetra February 2019 is explained in this lecture

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- Published/Last Modified on: April 3, 2019


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