Kurukshetra January 2018: Empowering Rural Women (Special Issue)

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Next Issue - Agriculture. Empowering Rural Women: Way Forward: Convergence of aspects of social, economic and political life, Empowerment is a continuous process. 50 % certificates under PM Kaushal Vikas Yojana awarded to women

Empowering Rural Women: Kurukshetra January 2018 Summary (in English)
  • Areas to work on - healthcare, employment, property & domestic violence, poor education and illiteracy, poor access to technologies, lack of skills, vulnerability to climate change, lack of convergence between government programs
  • Rural women constitute 66 % of total labor in farm production
  • Work participation rate of rural women (30 %) is higher than urban (15.4 %)
  • Men moving to diversified non-agricultural sectors but women in agricultural sectors
  • More than 18 % farm families headed by women but only 12.78 % have operational land holdings - women are only de-facto heads
  • 80 % rural enterprise are of women with home based subcontracted works

👌 Government Efforts

  • Deen-Dayal Upadhyay Antyodaya Yojana (DAY-NLRM) : Ajeevika is major project under Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) and aims to brings 1 woman member from each poor household under SHG
  • Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana (DDU GKY) - skill rural youth who are poor and provide them with jobs with 1 ⁄ 3rd women
  • Mahila Kisan Sashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP) - improve status of women in agriculture
  • Ministry of Women & Child Development - launched excessive training program to empower Elected Women Representative
  • Rashtriya Mahila Kosh: microcredit facility for women in informal sector without collateral for hassle free income generation. Mahila e-Haat set up where women and sellers can register products without paying selling fee & tie up with India Post
  • STEP (Support to Training and Employment Program for Women) - benefit women in age group 16 and above years to impart skills for entrepreneurship
  • Mahila Shakti Kendra - subscheme under Umbrella Scheme of Mission for Protection and Empowerment for Women
  1. Skill development
  2. Employment
  3. Digital Literacy
  4. Health and nutrition
  • Rajiv Gandhi National Creche Scheme for Children of Working Mothers - gainful employment. Steering Committee for Women՚s Agency and Child Rights for 12th Fiver Year Plan to make impact on early childhood care services for children upto 6 years of age
  • She-Box online Complaint Management System for working women - Effective implementation of Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2013 - make online complaints to all women employees in country
  • Community engagement through College Student Volunteers in 115 most backward districts
  • National repository of Information for Women (NARI) - provide citizens easy access to information on government schemes and initiatives for women - rural women can access it at the ground level
  • One Stop Centers: for Woman in Crisis - for women affected by violence in public or private space with video conferencing, legal aid, shelter, assistance in lodging, medical assistance, emergency response and rescue services & psycho-social support systems
  • Special focus for rural, LWE, J&K and hilly areas

Economic Empowerment of Rural Women

  • 👌 Mission Poorna Shakti: Single window for all women centric programs run by various ministries
  • Digital India for e-learning
  • Gulaab Gang (2013 film) - woman protagonist battles social injustice and creates platform for abused women
  • Rural areas - agriculture - females (86.1 %) & males (74 %) ; manufacturing - females (7.1 %) & males (7 %)
  • Women though more and long hours still not perceived productive workers
  • Daily wage disparity grew form 75 % in 2004 - 05 to 80 % in 2013 - 14 b/w males and females
  • Free and compulsory education b/w 6 to 14 years of age - Sarva Siksha Abhiyan
  • Female literacy rate 2011 at 65.46 % as compared to male literacy at 80 %
  • Rural areas 4.5 % males & 2.2 % female complete education above graduation while same in urban areas stand at 17 % for males and 13 % for females
  • 2001: Women Empowerment Year (1st year of new millennium)
  • UNESCO statistics:
  • If child enjoy equal access to education, PCI would increase by 23 % in 40 years
  • If all women get primary education - child marriage and mortality would decrease by 1 ⁄ 6th and maternal deaths by 2 ⁄ 3rd
  1. Education empowers women
  2. Education promotes tolerance
  3. Education equality improves job opportunities and increases economic growth

Constitutional Provisions

  • Article 14: equal rights for man and woman
  • Article 15 (1) : prohibits discrimination
  • Article 16: Equality of opportunity
  • Article 39 (d) : Equal pay for equal work
  • Article 42: first and humane work conditions and maternity relief
  • Hindu Succession Act, 1956: women right to parental property
  • Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961: declares taking dowry as unlawful activity
  • Equal Remuneration Act, 1976: equal remuneration for men and women
  • Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act, 1971: legalize abortion on health grounds
  • Criminal Law Amendment Act, 1983 - stop crime against women
  • Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 - prohibits vulgar presentation of women on media
  • Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 - effective protection of rights of women guaranteed under Constitution

👌 National Policy for Women, 2016

7 priority areas intervention for next 15 - 20 years

  • Health, food security and nutrition
  • Education
  • Economy
  • Governance and decision making
  • Violence against women
  • Enabling environment
  • Environment and climate change

PM Ujjwala Yojana: Making Woman Healthier and Happier

  • 2011 census: 121 million households use inefficient chulhas
  • WHO report - smoke inhaled from unclean fuel is equivalent to 400 cigarettes in an hour
  • Attain SDG - 7 for affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy services by 2030
  • Increase renewable energy in global energy mix
  • Double global rate of improvement in energy efficiency
  • Enhance international cooperation to facilitate clean energy research
  • Advance and cleaner fossil fuel technology and promote investment in energy infrastructure
  • 40 % population deprived of clean cooking fuel
  • Aim for 80 million LPG connections by 2020
  • Launched in 2016 in Ballia in UP
  • Connections in name of adult woman of BPL family with no LPG connection
  • Improve health, productivity, save time
  • Subsidy directly to bank account with Aadhaar and mobile phone numbers
  • Give-it Up for middle class households to help needy - was released by 13 million people
  • Bulk purchase reduced cost from ₹ 4,500 - 5,000 to ₹ 3,200
  • Maximum connections so far to UP (5.8 million) followed by West Bengal (3.9 million)
  • LPG Panchayat - spread awareness about use of LPG and benefits of clean fuel
  • National Mission on Clean Cooking (NMCC) needs to be pursued to coordinate efforts on cooking fuels, efficient cook stoves and related R&D for full clean cooking fuel coverage by 2022
  • Lead to employment to 1 lakh and provide business opportunity of ₹ 10,000 crore over next 3 years

Women Safety: Top Priority

  • WHO - Violence against Women (VAW) occurs through 5 stages of life cycle as pre-birth, infancy, girlhood, adolescence and adulthood, finally elderly
  • Women helpline -181: 4 lakh women assisted and is operational in 28 states/UTs in 2015 with 24 hour response in emergency and non-emergency situation
  • Panic button & GPS in Mobile Phone Handsets Rules 2016 under section 10 of Indian Wireless Telegraph Act, 1933
  • After 1 Jan 2018 - no mobile phone without facility of identifying location through satellite based GPS
  • Mahila Police Volunteer: even in every gram panchayat - create awareness (Himmat App for emergency) , inform additional police, information collection unit, report missing child, domestic violence, facilitate Mahila aur Shishu Raksha Dal, mandatory visit to Anganwadi once a week, establish linkage with protection officers, participate in meetings and provide feedbacks - 1st state to launch was Haryana (Karnal and Mahendragarh districts)
  • Missing women killed in gender related crimes - 191 million of the magnitude of that in war of 20th century
  • 33 % reservation for women in police
  • Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 - recognize sexual harassment at workplace as violation of human rights in case of Vishakha vs. State of Rajasthan - constitute “internal complaints committee” if there are more than 10 employees to handle sexual harassment cases at workplace
  • Inclusion of acid attack victims in Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act - Supreme Court banned sale of acid to public to curb it but number of victims increased by 23.3 %
  • UJJAWALA: Scheme for prevention of trafficking and rescue, rehabilitation and re-integration of victims of trafficking and commercial sexual exploitation
  • Women Power Line 1090: Introduced in UP in November 2012 - identity is not disclosed, victim is not called to police station, calls are taken by women police officers only, one number across state and officers keep in touch until resolution of complaint and 3 months after resolution as well - so far 8.44 complaints have been received of 87 % on harassment over phone, 9 % on cases of harassment in public places and 2 % for social media websites - also appoints school going girls as “Power Angels” for 5 years to act as bridge between police and civil society
  • Women liberation movement started in 1974 - 75 in India
  • Patna Conference of 1988 - VAW as purdah, sati, dowry, female infanticide, selective abortion and rapes
  • Nirbhaya case highlighted in 2012
  • 2013 GoI stats - total IPC crimes at 11.7 % against women and rate of crime at 52.2 %

Women & Panchayats

  • 33 % reservation for women in PRIs
  • Program to train women sarpanch has been launched - train on schemes, maternity benefit, health, immunization, anganwadis
  • Article 40: Organize village panchayat, give them powers and enable them to function as units of self-government
  • 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 - added new Part IX to constitution - new 11th schedule and 29 subjects
  • Reservation of women - 1 ⁄ 3rd seats for women & in 5 states increased to 50 % (Bihar, Chhattisgarh, MP, Rajasthan & HP)
  • 3 tier panchayat system (if population is less than 20 lakhs - intermediate or 2-tier system)
  • Term of 5 years
  • Gram Sabha - to include all persons registered in electoral rolls
  • Reservation of SC/ST
  • Govt. to appoint state finance commission to review financial position of panchayats
  • Under 14th Finance Commission - panchayat to get 2 lakh crore in 5 years as against ₹ 30,000 crore for overall development
  • Help create model villages
  • Prepare women as future political leaders

Education the Girl Child for Better Tomorrow

  • Free and compulsory education b/w age 6 to 14 years under 86th Amendment Act
  • Literacy improved from 12 % in 1947 to 74.4 % in 2011 (male@82.14 % and females@65.46 %)
  • Why education is important for women?
  1. Social development: Kothari committee - 1968 - education as tool for social development
  2. Gender equality
  3. Economic productivity
  4. Reduction in IMR
  5. Improved standard of living
  6. Women empowerment
  7. Better future prospects
  8. Holistic and inclusive development

Literacy - Urban (Women@79.11 % & Men@88.76 %) & Rural (Women@57.93 % & Men@77.15 %)

👌 Major issues@primary level - low enrolment, sociological and psychological barrier

@secondary level - high drop outs, inadequate facilities

@vocational school - gender stereotyping & domestic preferences


  • Sakshar Bharat Mission for Female Literacy - target to achieve 80 % literacy level at national level
  • Right to education - b/w 6 to 14 years
  • Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya - on gender disparities in rural areas & disadvantaged communities
  • National Program for Education of Girls at Elementary level - to reach the hardest to reach girls not in school
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan - launched to enhance access to secondary education and achieve target of 75 % at secondary stage
  • 👌 Dhanlakshmi Scheme - promote awareness and education of girl child - money transfer at birth, progress and completion of immunization and enrolment and retention in school
  • 👌 SABLA - Rajiv Gandhi Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls - integrated with National Skill Development Program - 2 components as nutrition and non-nutrition - includes self development, awareness, home based skills, iron and folic acid supplement, life skill education and vocational training for girls 16 years and above
  • Beti Bacho, Beti Padhao - cover 640 districts & full implementation in 161 districts. Launched in Panipat, Haryana. Child sex ratio declined from 976 in 1961 to 918 in 2011; enforcement of pre-conception and pre-natal diagnostic techniques act. Ban on sex determination, girls as paraya dhan, oppse dowry, child marriage, gender stereotype, violence against girls; Guddi Gudda boards at district levels to display data on Sex ration at Birth

What Can be Done?

  • Grassroot level implementation - sensitization and awareness building for women education
  • Strategic initiative - target scheme and approaches, incentivization of education of girl child
  • Legislative initiatives - reservation for women in education

Gender Equality for a Progressive Society

  • 👌 In Global Gender Gap Index 2014 given by World Economic Forum (WEF) - India ranks 114 from 142 nations Of 46 % children affected by malnutrition, 70 % are girl child
  • Exploitation of shram and sharir (body and labour)
  • Article 1 of UN Declaration on Elimination of Violence 1993
  • Introduction of acceptable fortified Take Home Ration (THR) for children of 7 months to 3 years with higher nutritive value - addition of milk protein
  • Supervised feeding of malnourished child - 12 days of supervised feeding followed by 18 days of home visits to observe learnt behavior
  • 👌 Suposhan Abhiyan - effective microplanning, involvement of various sectors like health, agriculture, food; poshan sahayogini, poshan mitra team; gram sabha taderth samiti to reach out to disadvantaged
  • Introduction of one whole meal rather than THR for pregnant and lactating mothers
  • Tamil Nadu - 25 Women Food Cooperative Societies to provide complementary food to all 32 districts
  • Child marriages are declining - 52 % in 2001 as compared to 31.6 % in 2011
  • Indira Gandhi Mathritva Sahayog Yojana (IGMSY) in Erode and Cuddalore districts (3 installments of ₹ 4000 per mother to combat wage loss and improve nutritional status) - benefit to 6.5 lakh mothers
  • Anemia common in 50 % males and 70 % females
  • Nasik - weekly supplement of 100 mg of elemental iron and 500 mcg of folic acid, 6 monthly deworming and life skill training
  • Nari Gaurav Niti - launched in 2006 with focus on education, quality of life, health and nutrition
  • Chiranjeevi Yojana - benefited 9.97 lakh pregnant women
  • 👌 Khilkhilat - ambulance for safe home coming of infants and mothers post delivery
  • Jagjagi Kendra - Bihar՚s non formal center for gender based studies for girls from 9 to 14 years of age with 3 hours to sensitize mothers of girl child
  • One Stop Centre Scheme - established Nirbhay Fund in 2013 with initial corpus of ₹ 1000 crore. It is a subscheme of National Mission for Empowerment of women including Indira Gandhi Mattritva Sahayog Yojana
  • Nagaland (Chizami village) - equal wages for men and women in 2014
  • Rajasthan - Rajasthan Samuhik Vivah Niyaman Evum Anudan Niyam 2009 to curb heavy expenditure in marriages
  • Aparajita - One stop crisis center, Sneh Aangan, Special Women Security cell
  • 👌 Sakhi Mandals/Mission Mangalam - financial empowerment and removal of debt
  • Mahila Pashupalak Protsaahan Yojna to increase number of Dudh mandali run by women
  • Mata Yashoda Gaurav Nidhi Insurance for Anganwadi workers
  • Schemes for widows in UP - Swadhar Yojana & two others under Meera Sehbhagini Yojna

Health of Rural Women - Wealth of Nation

  • By increasing health expenditure by $ 5/person/year upto 2035 we can get 9 times economic and social benefits
  • MMR at 167 (from 560 in 1990) ; U5MR at 43 (form 126 in 1990) ; IMR at 34 (from 88 in 1990)
  • Elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus in April 2015 ahead of target in Dec 2015
  • 👌 Control new HIV cases by Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) under NACO
  • RMNCH + A (Reproductive Maternal Neonatal and Child Health)
  • Rashtriya Kishore Swasthya Karyakram - started in 2014 to focus on sexual reproductive health, nutrition, injury, mental health and substance misuse
  • Weekly Iron Folic Acid Supplementation to all adolescents (WIFS)
  • National Health Mission
  • Adolescent Friendly Health Clinics - 1st level of contact of primary health care services
  • Peer education program (Saathiya) - 2 male and 2 female selected per 1000 population to educate adolescents on health issues
  • ASHA and ANM (auxiliary nurse midwives) - train people on family planning
  • Mission Parivar Vikas (MPV) - focus 7 states with highest total fertility rate
  • Pradhan Mantri Surakshit Matritva Abhiyan (PMSMA) - 9th of each month is special ante-natal checkup of pregnant women at govt. facilities
  • Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) - safe motherhood and conditional cash assistance to pregnant women to deliver at public health institutions
  • Maternity leave increased from 12 to 16 weeks by Maternity Benefit (Amendment) Bill 2016 which amended Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 - after 1st two years it will be 12 weeks; 12 weeks for those mothers adopting a child below age of 3 months and to commissioning mothers (uses egg to create embryo planted in another woman) ; creche in organization with more than 50 employees
  • Janani Shishu Suraksha Karyakram (JSSK) - free transport, delivery and diet to mother and newborn
  • HIV + woman initiated on lifelong Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) irrespective CD4 count and WHO clinical staging - newborns if exposed initiated on 6 weeks Nevirapine immediately after birth to prevent transmission of HIV from mother to child

Empowering Adolescent Girls: Needs and Concerns

  • 20 % children suffer from mental illness
  • Suicide rates are 7 times higher in India than world - causing 25 % deaths in boys and 50 - 75 % in girls
  • Depression accounts for 4.3 %
  • 76 - 85 % having mental disorders receive no treatment
  • 12.8 % children suffer from mental and behavioral disorders
  • 📝 Global Mental Health Action Plan (2013 - 2020)
  1. Strengthen effective leadership
  2. Comprehensive, integrated and responsive mental health and social care services
  3. Strategy for promotion and prevention in mental health
  4. Strengthen information systems
  • Promote awareness
  • Organize annual function and fest on gender equality
  • Provide necessary life skills
  • Demonstrate knowledge for schemes
  • Peer educators and special educators
  • Remove and review physical barriers in school
  • Gear all teacher education programs
  • Make mental health, yoga and physical education as compulsory subjects
  • Positive parenting sessions
  • Individualized home and education plans
  • Outcome based research
  • Measurable and sustainable monitoring and evaluation system
  • #HelpMeWCD - woman/child facing harassment or violence can directly report by tweeting (Women and Child Development)
  • Perform outcome based research to improve psychological and academic outcomes

Folk Arts as Tool for Development

  • 200 artists worked for 12 days to convert Madhubani station into open art gallery - area of 9414 km2 (a world record in itself)
  • Some challenges to folk art are awareness, market, production, organization and dwindling interests
  • 👌 Madhubani art - done by women to decorate house walls to seek God՚s blessings for prosperity and peace. This art was rare till 1930. In 1934 earthquake, British officer William G. Archer saw this on damaged walls
  • (folklore - On Sita՚s marriage artists were asked to decorate the kingdom)
  • How to promote - commercialization, skill development and training, promoting art at public places and digitization of artwork

Women as Part of Rural Workforce

  • Rural women workers (121.8 million)
  • Feminization of labor - increase participation of women in low wage industrial and service jobs
  • More rural women work as marginal labors rather than rural men
  • MGNERGA - 100 days of work to rural adults who completed 18 years of age - bottom up, demand driven, self selecting, people centered
  • 📝 Challenges of rural women at work
  1. Gender discrimination in land ownership
  2. Feminization of rural poverty
  3. Malnutrition
  4. Poor health
  5. Lack of education
  6. Unskilled
  7. Mistreatment
  8. Powerlessness

Cabinet Approves Scheme for Capacity Building in Textile Sectors (SCBTS)

  • Excludes spinning and weaving in organized sector
  • Scheme will have National Skill Qualification Framework
  • Provide demand driven, placement oriented skilling program to incentivize efforts of industry in creating jobs in organized textile sector
  • Meet in-house requirement of manpower
  • Training institutions having tie up with textile industries
  • Web based monitoring will be adopted
  • 70 % of certified trainees to be placed in wage employment
  • Benefit 10 lakh people of which 1 lakh in traditional sectors

📝 National Nutrition Mission Approved

  • Monitor, supervise, fix target and guide nutrition related interventions
  • Map various schemes
  • Introduce robust convergence mechanism
  • Real time monitoring system
  • Incentivize Anganwadis
  • Set up Nutrition Resource Centers
  • Benefit more than 10 crore people
  • Work out in 3 phases
  • Reduce stunting, under-nutrition, anemia, low birth weight

Nirbhaya Fund

  • By GoI with 22 proposals for ₹ 22,000 crore
  • Safety and security of women in India
  • 3 schemes
  1. One Stop Centre
  2. Women Helpline
  3. Mahila Police Volunteer

Manushi Chhillar - Miss World 2017

  • 17 years after Priyanka Chopra in 2000
  • MBBS student from Sonipat, Haryana
  • 6th woman after Reita Faria (1966) , Aishwarya Rai (1994) , Diana Haydon (1997) , Yukta Mookhey (1999) & Priyanka Chopra (2000)

Saikhom Mirabai Chanu

  • 1st Indian women in 2 decades to get gold medal at World Weightlifting Championship
  • 85kg in snatch (broke the Commonwealth record)
  • 109 kg in clean and jerk
  • Only 2nd Indian after Karnam Malleshwari to win gold
  • Won Gold in Asian games, 2016
  • Silver in Commonwealth games in 2014
  • Gold in International Youth Championship in 2011

📝 PM on Women Empowerment at GES-2017

  • Theme - “Women first, prosperity for all”
  • Kalpana Chawla, Sunita Williams - space
  • Rani Lakshmibai, Rani Ahilyabai Holkar - bravery
  • PV Sindhu, Saina Naiwal, Sania Mirza - sports
  • Milk cooperatives in Gujarat & Sri Mahila Grah Udyog Lijjat Papad - women led cooperative movements
  • “Its not possible for the bird to fly on one wing” - Swami Vivekananda
  • Vision for National Women Policy, 2016 - women attain full potential in all spheres of life

Swadhar Greh - Scheme for Women in Difficult Circumstances

  • Launched in 2001 - 02
  • Cater to primary need of shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment and care of women
  • Regain emotional strength
  • Provide legal aid and guidance
  • Rehabilitate them
  • Act as support system
  • Temporary residential accommodation
  • Vocational and skill upgradation
  • Beneficiaries: deserted women, survivors of natural disasters, prisoners from jail, victims of violence and trafficked women

Nari Shakti Puraskar

  • GoI - Highest civilian honor for Women on International Women Day -8th March
  • Instituted in 1999 to acknowledge services that have made lasting contribution to women empowerment

Dr. Ambedkar International Centre

  • Dedicated to nation
  • To spread his teachings and vision
  • Inclusive growth and socio-economic matters

Navika Sagar Parikrama

  • All woman team of Indian Navy circumnavigating the globe on INSV Tarini (55 foot sail vessel built indigenously)
  • INSV Tarini skippered by Lt. Commander Vartika Joshi
  • Flagged off on Sept. 2017 and expected to return in April 2018

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana

  • India - every 3rd women is undernourished and every 2nd is anemic
  • Implemented from 1st Jan 2017 across India
  • Cash incentive of ₹ 5000 to pregnant and lactating mothers for 1st living child

Women of India Organic Festival 2017

  • Largest organic festival by women farmers and producers
  • Annual event now
  • Footfall of 2.35 lakh visitors
  • Total sales by all was ₹ 1.84 crore

Kalaburagi, Karnataka

  • Focus on health and hygiene of pregnant women
  • Initative called “koosu” or child
  • Baby showers for pregnant ladies owning toilets and buid one for them
  • Brain child of Koralpatti

Toilet Building Campaign

  • 13 lakh toilets constructed
  • Aim to construct 10,000 toilets in 2 weeks

C-Section Surgeries

  • WHO recommends it should be 10 - 15 % of total deliveries
  • In Tamil Nadu - 34 % & in Telangana - 54 %
  • All private hospitals under CGHS to display data of delivery through C-Section
Empowering Rural Women: Kurukshetra January 2018 Summary (in Hindi)

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