Kurukshetra January 2019 Empowering Rural Youth (Part-2) (Download PDF)


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Pradhan Mantri Jan-Dhan Yojana (PMJDY): Scheme offers incentives such as insurance coverage, RuPay cards & over draft (OD) facility apart from Direct Benefit Transfers (DBT), 6 pillars of PMJDY are: Universal access to banking services, Providing basic banking accounts w/OD facilities & RuPay debit card, Financial literacy, Creation of Credit Guarantee Fund, Providing micro insurance, Providing unorganized sector pension scheme, Financial Inclusion initiative was successful w/record of 8.76cr. Savings bank a/c opening w/I 100 days from launch of PMJDY, GoI launched Make in India, Skill India, Startup India & Stand-up India w/view to building ecosystem for sustainable economic growth, promotion of entrepreneurial opportunities & generates large scale employment opportunities especially for youth.

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Empowering Rural Youth: Kurukshetra January 2019 (In Hindi)

Kurukshetra January 2019: Empowering Rural Youth is explained in this lecture Key Topics included in this Article

  • Stand-up India provides digital platform based on 3 pillars to support enterprises among entrepreneurs from SC, ST & Women category thru:
  1. Handholding support
  2. Providing Information on financing
  3. Credit Guarantee

📝 Micro Units Development & Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Loans

  • MUDRA was set up for development & refinancing of micro enterprises.
  • Scheme was aimed at providing micro-finance to non-corporate small business sector thru various last-mile financial institutions.
  • Scheme covers credit plus services including financial literacy & other social support services, in order to achieve goal of ‘Funding the Unfunded’.
  • GoI’s latest initiative of issuance of license to Payments Banks is mainly to encourage micro savings & inculcate banking habits among rural poor & financially excluded.
  • Shishu loan had highest share of 42 % in terms of sanctioned loan amount which was followed by Kishor (34%) & Tarun (24%).
Image of Financial Inclusion Data

Image of Financial Inclusion Data

Image of Financial Inclusion Data

Policy Implications & Conclusions

  • RBI & banks should coordinate w/institutions such as State Education Boards (SEBs), CBSE, UGC & AICTE to include financial inclusion as mandatory subject at different educational levels right from school to higher levels of education.

NABARD: Building Capacity of Rural Youth

National Bank for Agriculture & Rural Development (NABARD)

  • NABARD formed by Act of Parliament in 1982.
  • Mandate of organization is promoting sustainable & equitable agriculture & rural development thru participative financial & non-financial interventions, innovations, technology & institutional development for securing prosperity.
  • Functions of organization are aimed at building empowered & financially inclusive rural India.
  • Initiatives of NABARD in empowering rural youth are:

Capacity Building thru Microfinance Movement:

  • NABARD had launched Self-Help Group-Bank Linkage Program (SHG-BLP) in 1992 w/target of linking 500 SHGs in a year.
  • Aims at improving access of weaker & other sections from formal financial institutions & their livelihood.
  • Microfinance initiative of NABARD has assumed shape of movement in country by forming 87.4 lakh SHGs, collecting savings of Rs. 19,592 cr. & w/credit outstanding of Rs. 75,598 cr. by 31st March 2018.
  • Program has enabled more than 10cr. poor Indian households to gain access to micro-finance from formal banking system.
  • Since 2006, NABARD has started enabling graduation of SHG members to next higher level of livelihoods thru Micro Enterprise Development Program (MEDPs).
  • Livelihood Enterprise Development Program (LEDP) , holistic approach form livelihoods & enterprise development for creating sustainable livelihoods among SHG members was introduced on pilot basis in selected States.
  • 324 LEDPs are supported thru w/grant sanction from NABARD up to 31st March 2018.
  • As on 31st March 2018,15,382 SHG members were supported thru 203 LEDP programmes.
  • Joint Liability Group (JLG) has emerged as one of easiest & collateral-free mode of purveying institutional credit to landless & tenant farmers/artisans by formal banking system.
  • As on 31st March 2018, total of 9.49 lakh JLGs are promoted & linked w/banks.

Capacity building in Farm Sector:

Farmers Clubs:

  • FC program aimed at forging linkages of farmers w/banks & agricultural technologies.
  • 👌 In 1982, Vikas Volunteer Vahini (VVV) programme was introduced to propagate 5 principles of ‘Development thru Credit’
  • Credit must be used in accordance w/most suitable methods of Science & Technology.
  • Terms & Conditions of credit must be respected.
  • Work must be done w/skill as to increase production & productivity.
  • Part of additional income created by credit must be saved
  • Loan installments must be repaid on time & regularly so as to recycle credit
  • Goal of this program is capacity building & empowerment of farming community & more particularly small & marginal farmers across rural areas.
  • Thru workshops, training programs & formation/nurturing of village level community based organizations like Village Watershed Committees, NABARD is providing guidance/education, skill & insight to rural people.
  • As on 31st March 2018, data of 23,000 Farmer’s Clubs were digitized.

Agri-Clinic & Agri-Business Centre (ACABC)

  • Agriculture Graduates can set up their own ACABC & offer extension services to farmers.
  • Centers provide expert advice & services to farmers on payment basis to enhance crop/animal productivity & increase incomes.
  • Centers give advice to farmers on crop selection, best farm practices, post-harvest value added options, price trends, risk mitigation mechanism, crop insurance, credit & inputs access etc.

Tribal Development Fund

  • Under this Fund, assistance is given to tribal households to have wadi, allied & off-farm activities.
  • Training & capacity building, processing, marketing, micro enterprises for women/landless, community health improvement, women empowerment & building community organizations are other components of TDF projects.
  • As on 31st March 2018, cumulatively project had benefitted 5.21 lakh families w/712 projects across 28 States & UTs.

Farmers Produce Organizations (FPOs)

  • Promoted under Section IX A of Companies Act, 1956 in 2013.
  • FPOs have ability for improving farmers’ welfare & reducing risks.
  • NABARD set up Producers’ Organizations Development Fund (PODF) & assisted 221 existing Producer Organizations (Pos).
  • Benefits of joining FPOs:
  1. Brings farmers together & gives them strength & confidence.
  2. Provides platform to collectively voice their opinions & concerns.
  3. Helps members in negotiating for better position
  4. Supplies crop inputs to farmers at reduced rate.
  5. Offers financial, technical & extension support.
  6. Improves capability by demonstration, training & exposure visit.
  7. Aggregates crop produce & improves bargaining power.
  8. Helps in reducing distress sale by providing pledge loan facility.
  9. Provides additional employment by adding value to produce thru cleaning, grading, processing & packing.
  10. Links w/processors, wholesaler & consumer for direct sale.

Skill Development in Non-Farm Sector

  • Rural Entrepreneurship Development Programme (REDP) is imp. Non-Form Sector (NFS) promotional programme.
  • Objective is to develop entrepreneurial & activity-oriented skills among unemployed rural youth willing to set up small/micro-enterprise by assisting Voluntary Agencies (VA) /Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) /Development Agencies (DA) /RUDSETIs etc. w/good track record in conducting REDPs.
  • For generating self-employment & wage employment opportunities in rural areas, NABARD is supporting Rural Entrepreneurship Development Programs (REDP) & SDP.
  • As on 31st March 2018, NABARD has supported training of more than 8.37 lakh rural youth thru 32,520 REDPs/SDPs.
  • NABARD thru its 3 training establishments, Bankers Institute of Rural Development (BIRD) – Lucknow, Mangalore & Bolpur, offers skill training & capacity building of bankers & officials of NGOs in farm, off-farm & micro finance sectors.

Stand Up India Scheme

  • Objective is to facilitate bank loans b/w Rs. 10 lakh & Rs. 1 cr. To at least one SC or ST borrower & at least one woman borrower per bank branch for setting up green-field enterprises.

👌 Agri Business Incubation Centers

  • Significance of AIC in facilitating ecosystem conductive for growth of Agribusiness enterprises is recognized worldwide.
  • It helps in increasing agricultural productivity & entrepreneurship development by supporting startups & enterprises.

Skilling Youth through Suryamitra

  • Skilling India is initiative for job opportunities. It is program to create 500 million skilled manpower by 2020.
  • Renewable energy is targeted sector & National Institute of Solar Energy (NISE) under Ministry of New & Renewable Energy (MNRE) is assigned w/responsibility to execute various skill development programmes in renewable energy technology.
  • NISE is conducting ‘Suryamitras’ training program to provide skilled technicians for installation, commissioning operation & maintenance in solar technology.
  • 👌 Objective is to provide employability & entrepreneurship to rural & urban youth & women.
  • GoI intends to achieve target of 175 GW which includes 100 GW from Solar Energy by 2022.
  • 👌 Suryamitra Program is Solar PV Technician course which is designed to develop skilled & employable workforce catering to needs of solar PV industries & EPC Projects in installation, commissioning & operation & maintenance of solar power plants & equipment.
  • Qualification required to participate in program is ITI (Electrical & Wireman) /Diploma in Engineering (Electrical, Electronics & Mechanical.
  • 👌 Main objective of program is to train 10 + 2 passed, ITI/Diploma holders as field technicians to execute National Solar Mission (NSM) program across country.
  • Focus is to provide employability & entrepreneurship to rural & urban youth & women. MNRE set target of 50000 Suryamitras of skilled manpower in solar energy sector.
  • 👌 Surya Mitra mobile App is launched to connect Suryamitras w/entrepreneurship & larger section of society.
  • App can handle thousands of calls simultaneously & can efficiently monitor all visits of Suryamitras.
  • App would come handy w/respect to operation & maintenance, repair & maintenance of solar pumps.
  • App would be useful to serve customers at their doorsteps w/quality installation, repair & O&M services.
  • NISE has fixed price Rs. 150/- per visit as visiting charges for Suryamitra Services.

ICT for Empowering Rural Youth

Information & Communication Technology

  • ICTs consist of hardware, software, networks & media for collection, storage, processing, transmission & presentation of information & related services.
  • Skymet: It is largest weather monitoring & agricultural risks Solutions Company of country. Website forecast weather information, suggests for crop insurance & related risk management.
  • Frontal Rain Technology: It is accessible thru computer & mobile. It is useful for firms dealing in commodities like groceries, basmati rice, seeds, cattle feed, sea food, dairy products & edible oil. Website creates scope for demand & supply of agricultural products on cloud.
  • Agrostar: It provides genuine agricultural inputs to farmers at their doorstep. It helps to procure agricultural inputs such as seeds, plant nutrition, plant protection & agriculture equipments by simply giving missed call on company’s toll free number, 1800 thru their mobile appto prevent hardship of unavailability of products.
  • Ekgaon Technologies: It provides technology platform to farmers w/provision of range of services. It provide financial counselling, guide for agricultural input availabilities & provision of govt. assistance etc. It provides information & counselling of credit, savings, remittance, insurance, investment & mortgage etc at doorstep & information regarding microfinance institutions available in locality. It provide local language base agriculture advisory services to mobile users thru interactive voice response system (IVRS).
  • MITRA (Machines, Information, Technology, Resources for Agriculture): Aims to improve mechanization at horticulture farms w/use of highly effective farm equipments. It is useful for fruits & vegetables crops. It is effectively utilized for grapes & pomegranate.
  • Cropln Technology Solutions: It offers information on cloud-based platform thru mobile base application. It is known as ‘Smart Farms’. It provides smart & safe food supply for consumers around world by considering agriculture as business.
  • Eruvaka Technology: It is solar-powered floating equipment that measures oxygen level, temp. & pH range of water & suggests conduciveness of aquaculture & possible remedies.
  • BHUVAN software: It integrates & processes ground inputs w/satellite data for diverse needs.

3 prominent applications:

  • CHAMAN (Coordinate program on Horticulture assessment & Management using geo-informatics). It helps in:
  1. Digital inventory of all horticulture zones in country.
  2. Deciding cold storage
  3. Managing inflation thru accurate data of food stock.
  • FASAL (Forecasting Agricultural output using Space, Agro-meteorology & Land based observations). It help in:
  1. Monitor crop health
  2. Use to directly study crop locations.
  • NADAMS (National Agricultural Drought Assessment & Monitoring System).
  1. Remote sensing real time information on current or developing drought at state, dist. & sub dist. Level.
  • Android Apps are new tools in hands of officials & farmers:
  1. CCE Agri: App used to estimate crop damage & yield loss at 1100 locations in 12 states.
  2. Ground Truth: To monitor crop health being used by 18 state govt.
  3. Bhuvan Hailstorm App: Being used to capture hailstorm losses in states.
  4. mKisan: Provides farm advisories, such as weather & pest updates on phones to farmers.

National Agriculture Market (eNAM)

  • It facilitates farmers, traders & buyers w/online trading in commodities.
  • Market is helping in better price discovery & provides facilities for smooth marketing of their produce.
  • Market transaction stood at Rs. 36,200cr. By January 2018.

ICT in Rural Employment

  • ICT kiosks are demonstrated to provide attractive job opportunities.

ICT in Health Services

  • Basic medical information is available online & on CDs, in local languages.
  • Online list of information abt availability of health care facilities & fixing appointments, providing health histories.

Economic Development thru ICT

  • Focus on using ICTs for rural development is supportive of reduced inequality along w/increased efficiency & growth.

Overview of ICT Initiatives for Employment

  • Drishtee: Drishtee. com had origins in Gyandoot project in Dhar, MP. Project is offering range of e-governance related services in villages by internet.
  • Aksh: it is fibre optic cable company, w/its core competence in laying & maintaining cable. Its revenue model is driven by content & data that can be delivered over this cable.
  • n-Logue: Main impetus for n-Logue came from IIT Chennai research group. Group is responsible for stream of hardware & software innovations.
  • ITC: ITC’s kiosks are called e-choupals. 4 kinds of e-choupals, tailored very specifically for 4 diff. products: shrimp, coffee, wheat & soybeans. 1st 2 involve large commercial farmers, & focus is on creating Internet access to global market information to guide production & supply decisions.
  • TARAhaat: It include comprehensive portal for rural information services & extended vision of its ‘TARAkendras’ as community centers. It has educational content partner, called TARAgyan, which is developing local language content & software for use in TARAkendras.

Opportunities in Value Chain & Food Processing

Rural Youth as Engine for Growth

  • According to FAO, as future leaders, rural youth need to be prepared in:
  1. Improving their capabilities to produce food & to conserve productive resources in rural environment
  2. Improving their skills & abilities in carrying out income generating activities in rural areas
  3. Relieving population pressure & improving nutrition & well being of farming families
  4. Developing leadership & ability to work well w/other in group & community situations.

Opportunities in Food Processing & Agribusinesses

  • Food processing involves any type of value addition to agricultural produce including primary processing like grading, sorting & packaging to increase marketability of food products.
  • Secondary food processing involves value addition by transforming raw produce from its original state to more valuable state w/enhanced food quality, safety & shelf life.

Linking Rural Youth to Entrepreneurship

  • 👌 Village Adoption Program (VAP) is unique program designed by National Institute of Food Technology Entrepreneurship & Management to empower rural youth & promote entrepreneurship in food processing.
  • VAP has several pillars but promotion of entrepreneurship in food processing & value addition is major focused area.
  • VAP team follows imp. steps & activities:
  1. Team teaches farmers & rural youth abt ‘good agricultural practices (GAP), primary processing, scientific storage practices & value addition techniques.
  2. Team facilitates potential entrepreneurs in preparing detailed project proposals & creating backward & forward linkages for their enterprises.
  3. Program facilitated in empowering rural youth in many states & promoting food processing enterprises & counting.

Sanitation: The Journey so Far….

  • Present govt. ‘s initiative in sanitation is hailed as remarkable w/resolve to make country “open defecation free”.
  • According to report in last 3 years, abt 50 million toilets are constructed in rural India & 3.8 million in cities & towns.
  • 2.48 lakh villages, 203 dist. & 5 states – Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, U’Khand & Haryana are now ODF.
  • Surveys undertaken show, 85 % of toilets under SBM are being used.
  • Chief of WASH (Water, Sanitation, Hygiene) UNICEF India said: ‘In fully ODF community, considering medical costs averted, value of time savings & value of mortality averted financial savings for each household is Rs. 50,000 per year’.
  • ‘Swachhata Hi Seva’ campaign was launched to make people feel that work of cleanliness is service to community.
  • Presently, 55 - 60 % of households in country have access to sanitation facilities.
  • This aspects needs to be given special attention & govt. ‘s program called ‘Rashtriya Swachh Ganga Mission’ of cleaning Ganga river.

Innovative Entrepreneurship among Rural Youth

Govt. Schemes for Rural Entrepreneurship

  • Samagra Shiksha focuses on promoting vocational education to make it more job-oriented.
  • In order to coordinate efforts of all stake holders in field of skill development & entrepreneurship, GoI formed ‘Department of Skill Development & entrepreneurship’.
  • To improve employability of workers, ‘National Skill Development Mission’ was launched. It aims at consolidating & coordinating skilling efforts at national level.
  • To promote employment in agri-based vocational areas in agriculture & allied sector programme named as ‘Skill Training of Rural Youth’ is launched.
  • ‘Deen Dayal Upadhyay Grameen Kaushalya Yojana’ focus on rural poor youth in age group 15 - 35 years. It is mandatory to give min. 160 hrs. of training in soft skills, functional English & computer literacy etc. to transform rural poor youth into economically independent & globally relevant workforce.
  • Under ‘Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana’ industry relevant short term skill training is provided to youth to enable them secure better livelihood.
  • Project for Upgrading Skills & Training in Traditional Arts/crafts for Development, known as ‘Project USTTAD’ aims at capacity building & updating traditional skills of master trainers/artisans belonging to minority communities, BPL families in traditional art/craft fields of their choice.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gramin Digital Shiksha Abhiyan (PMGDISHA) was launched to impart digital literacy in rural areas w/aim to empower at least one person per rural household w/crucial digital literacy skills.
  • To promote culture of innovation & entrepreneurship by creating scientific temper among youth, Atal Innovation Mission is set up at NITI Aayog. It aims to improve vision of students who can enhance their creativity & transform them into innovators of new technology.

Government Initiatives for Youth in North-East & J&K

State Livelihood Mission & NULM schemes are being deployed to skill youth. Areas of training identified are:

  • Hospitality – (Cuisines, Food & Beverage, Pastry & Banking)
  • Tourism – Tour operators, hotels, home stay, taxis to places of attraction etc.
  • Nursing, Paramedics
  • Wellness & beauty
  • Fashion designing & garments, handloom weaving
  • Essential technicians – Electrician, Plumbing, repair of Acs, Fridge, Mobile repair etc.
  • Automobile – fitter, turner, mechanics, welding
  • Soft skills for employability in any sector
  • Retail Merchandising
  • Aviation – Cabin Crew, Air Hostess, ground crew etc.
  • Dept. of NE region w/NE Development Finance Co. Ltd. Is setting up VC fund worth Rs. 100 cr. to promote startups in NE states.
  • UDAAN: Special Industry Initiative (SII) for J&K aims to provide corporate exposure to youth & provide corporate India w/talent available in state.
  • Sadbhavna: It is run by Army. Under this Army runs imp. Program for youth of J&K. Army runs National Integration Tour under Sadbhavna where students get to visit other states of country & get 1st hand view of culture of their fellow citizens. More than 5000 people have benefited out of 200 tours conducted under this scheme.
  • Himayat: Scheme endeavors to train 1.24 lakh local youth of J&K in job intensive vocational courses.

Other Important Notes

👌 Pradhan Mantri Yuva Udyamita Vikas Abhiyan (PM-YUVA)

  • Under this scheme, entrepreneurship education is given to encourage entrepreneurship & help people to become self employed.
  • 22,308 students are enrolled & around 12,000 students are oriented for entrepreneurship under scheme.

International Youth Exchange Programme

  • Program is for promoting exchange of ideas, values & culture amongst youth of diff. countries & to develop International understanding.
  • Objective is to create International perspective in youth & to involve them in promoting peace & understanding.

Khelo India Youth Games to be held in Pune

  • First edition of Khelo India School Games was organized last year. Games are initiative of Central Govt. to promote youth in various sports & games.
  • Games will be held in Pune this year, known as City of Students, from nineth- twenteenth January, 2019.
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Empowering Rural Youth: Kurukshetra January 2019 (In English)

Kurukshetra January 2019: Empowering Rural Youth is explained in this lecture Key Topics included in this Article

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- Published/Last Modified on: January 31, 2019


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