Kurukshetra June 2019 Water Issues (Part-5) (Download PDF)

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Anicut: It is a structure constructed across a stream. It uses an earth fill section w/a spillway & is designed to hold sufficient water to submerge a substantial upstream area during rainy season.

Dysfunctional State of TRH Structures

  • Main reasons for dysfunctional state of TRH structures are:
  • Availability of other sources of water (piped water, hand pumps & canal water);
  • Requirement of financial resources for their use & maintenance;
  • Requirement of time & labour to use water from these structures; Lack of ownership & participation of community, &
  • Tendency to disregard age old & time tested lifestyle in favour of latest technology in name of modernization;

Revival Strategies for TRH Structures

  • Tarun Bharat Sangha (TBS) has received maximum attention. TBS has been working on revival of johad since 1986.
  • NGO revived five river systems, which were dried up for last several decades. By 2016,11,600 johads had been built in 1280 villages most of them in Alwar dist. Of state
  • TBS relied on community participation by undertaking padyatras & involving religious leaders.
  • Entire area which was earlier classified under ‘dark zone’, got converted to ‘white zone’.
  • Rajendra Singh, who runs NGO was awarded Ramon Magsaysay award for community leadership in 2001 & Stockholm Water Prize (known as Nobel Prize for water) in 2015.
  • Jal Bhagirathi Foundation (JBF), founded in 2002 has been working in area of water security for Marwar region, comprising seven districts. In western part of state.
  • JBF promotes revival & construction of TRH structures by using inexpensive, simple & traditional technology.
  • JBF has revived or constructed over 2,000 TRH structures covering about 500 villages. Financial sustainability & community ownership are ensured thru a development fund, called Jal Kosh, in which community deposits at least 30 % of project cost.
  • Gramin Vikas Vigyan Samiti (GRAVIS) has built over 7,000 tanks & over 600 beris in Thar desert area. Focus has been on capacity building of rural communities by involving them in this task.
  • Samajik Vikas Sansthan has promoted restoration of existing ponds - Sekhawati
  • Mewar Krishak Vikas Samiti has constructed about 30 nadis in Rajsamand district.
  • Bhoruka Charitable Trust has encouraged villages in Churu district to build & renovate kundis & johads.
  • 2015 Vedanta Cairn was involved in cleaning & maintaining Bhap nadi in Barmer district, benefitting 19 villages.
  • Lupin Limited has been involved in constructing check dams & anicuts in Bharatpur & Dholapur Districts.
  • In 1990s Central Arid Zone Research Institute (CAZRI), jodhpur developed improved technology of Tanka construction for various types of users (capacity ranging from 5000 liters for individual family to 600,000 liters for community use) using stone masonry w/cement plaster & cement concrete.
  • Paper prepared by researchers from CAZRI for international Water Management Institute in 2005 observed that TRH systems, are improved & untied on a large scale, they can meet requirements of drinking water of rural population & mitigate drought impact, at least partially
  • §In 2016 state Govt. launched a comprehensive scheme to ensure effective implementation of water conservation & water harvesting related activities in rural areas
  • It aims to cover about 21,000 villages w/7 lakh water conservation structures in four years.
  • Following Union Government’s Model Bill for Ground Water Management (2011) & National Water Policy (2012) State Government has made rainwater harvesting mandatory for all public establishments & all properties in plots covering more than 500 sq. m in urban areas.

Yoga: Art & Science for Healthy Living

  • Yoga is a spiritual discipline based on an extremely subtle science which focuses on bringing harmony between mind & body.
  • One who experiences this oneness of existence is said to be “in Yoga” & is termed as a yogi who has attained a state of freedom, referred to as mukti, nirvana, Kaivalya or moksha.
  • ” Yoga” refers to an inner science comprising of a variety of methods thru which human beings can achieve union between body & mind to attain self realization.
  • Aim of Yoga practice (sadhana) is to overcome all kinds of sufferings that lead to a sense of freedom in every walk of life w/holistic health, happiness & harmony.

Brief History & Development of Yoga

  • Seers & sages carried this powerful yogic science to diff. parts of world including Asia, Middle East, Northern Africa & South America. Agastya, saptarishi who travelled across Indian subcontinent, crafted this culture around a core Yogic way of life.
  • Yoga is considered as an “immortal cultural outcome” of Indus Valley Civilization dating back to 2700 BC- & spiritual uplift of humanity.
  • Seals & idol of mother Goddess are suggestive of Tantra Yoga. Presence of Yoga is available in folk traditions, Vedic & Upanishadic heritage, Buddhist & Jain, tradition

Darshanas, epics of Mahabharata including Bhagavad-Gita & Ramayana, theistic traditions of Shivas, Vishnavas & Tantric traditions.

  • Yoga was being practiced in pre- Vedic period great sage Maharishi Patanjali systematized & codified then existing Yogic practices, its meaning & its related knowledge thru Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras.

Yoga in East & west

  • Yoga is not widely practiced or popularized in East. Many people in East practice yoga in comfort of their own home.
  • Western world has picked up yoga asana which is being mainly viewed as good fitness regime for common man.
  • Real Yoga is not in public domain & cannot be is in private or secret domain i. e. secret between Guru & disciple. Secret Yoga leads to realization of all- Pervasive self & gives yogic access to every nook & corner of this creation by sitting at asana.
  • It is Kriyayoga which is real yoga or secret yoga practice for soul realization or salvation.
  • Yoga is a comprehensive practice that includes each & every aspect of life it’s a way of life. This type of Yoga involves moral aspects (such as not harming another living creature, & being truthful), relationship based instructions (such as kindness & generosity) evolvement of one’s consciousness (meditation & enlightenment) &
  • Finally, physical practice (meant to purify body & mind) Yoga in Western society is synonymous w/practice of asana (posture), & such asana Centred Yoga sessions are easily accessible in almost every city in West.
  • Yoga can be described a psycho-spiritual discipline which integrates both mental & physical practices w/integrated goal being spiritual enlightenment.
  • This ancient Indian practice was first conceived by rishis (sages) who were in search of a blissful state; this become know as “Yoga”, embodying concept of unity between body, mind & spirit.
  • Ancient Indian philosophy that is Yoga is deeply rooted in spirituality promoting components, including Niyama (self-discipline), Pratyahara (detachment from senses) & dhyana (meditation).
  • Yoga is made of eight essential elements Pranayama, essentially controlling breathing; Dhyana; Pratyahara which means not letting external factors influence oneself; Dhaarna or retention, Samaadhi or trance; Yama or control; Niyama or self-restraint, & Aasana or posture.
  • Knowledge aspect of Yoga Sadhana is being extensively researched w/advantage to Yoga practitioners. Psychological, Anatomic- Physiological, Bio-chemical & philosophical phenomena underlying Yoga Sadhana is commendably understood us today.
  • w/automation & changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure
  • Of body’s ability to function efficiently & effectively in work & leisure activities to be healthy to resist hypokinetic diseases, & to meet emergency situations.
  • Modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine’s ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope w/various situations.
  • Physical fitness can prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging.
  • Yoga is reported to reduce stress & anxiety, improves autonomic functions by triggering of sympathetic activity, & even, now-a-days, several reports suggest Yoga is beneficial for physical health of cancer patients.
  • Yoga as practiced & taught in India, entered Western world in 19th century w/translation of basic Yogic texts. Following attendance at World Parliament of Religions in Chicago in 1893, Swami Vivekananda introduced Yoga to USA. in 20th century numerous versions of Yoga were developed & taught.
  • Holistic science of Yoga is best method for prevention as well as mgmt. of stress & induced disorders.

Yoga as Therapy

  • Yogic principles of wellness help to strengthen & develop positive health enabling us to withstand stress better.
  • Yogic “health insurance” has achieved by normalizing perception of stress, optimizing reaction to it & by releasing pent up stress effectively thru practice of various Yogic practices.
  • Yoga may be useful in reducing medication requirements in patients w/diabetes, hypertension & could help prevent & mange cardiovascular complications.

Mechanism of Action how Yoga Works

  • Cleanses accumulated toxins thru various shuddikriyas & generates a sense of relaxed lightness thru Yogic sukshmvyayama (simple micro movements for all joints & ligaments of body). Free flow in all bodily passages prevents many infections that may occur when pathogens stagnate therein.
  • Adoption of a Yogic lifestyle w/proper nourishing diet, creates positive antioxidant enhancement thus neutralizing free radicals while enabling a rejuvenate storehouse of nutrients packed w/life energy to work on anabolic, reparative & healing processes.
  • Integrates body movements w/breath creates psychosomatic harmony. In Yoga physical body is related to annamayakosha & mind to manomayakosha (our physiological existence sustained by energy of breath) lies in b/w them breath is key to psychosomatic harmony.
  • Focuses mind positively on activities being done, enhances energy flow & results in health circulation to diff. body parts & internal organs. Where mind goes there prana flows.
  • Enhances self-confidence & internal healing capacities thru cultivation of right attitudes towards life & moral ethical living thru Yama-Niyama & various Yogic psychological principles. Faith self confidence & inner strength are most essential for healing, repair, rejuvenation & reinvigoration.
  • Yoga works towards restoration of normalcy in all systems of human body w/special emphasis on psycho-neuro-immuno-endocrine axis. In addition to its preventive & restorative capabilities, Yoga aims at promoting positive health that will help us to tide over health challenges that occur during our lifetime.

- Published/Last Modified on: June 22, 2019


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