Kurukshetra MAY 2019: a Journal on Rural Development (Part-1) (Download PDF)

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Key Topics Included In This Article: Principle of Organic Agriculture, Components of Organics Farming, Inhana Organic Farming (IRF) Technology, Types of Biofertilizers, Green Manuring, SRI (Systems of Rice Intensification), Health Benefits of Organic Farming, Role of NABARD in Organic Farming.

Organic farming is generally associated w/a “back to nature” movementOrganic farming involves various techniques:

Crop Rotation : -

  • A techniques of growing different crops in the same area according to the sessions to avoid pests and to maintain soil fertility.

Using Green Manures: -

  • Plant leaves & waste material of plants.

Biology Pest Control : -

  • Using living organization to protects plants from pests instead of synthetic chemicals

Vermicomposting: -

  • A process of composting using different worms for preparation of compost w/the mix of kitchen waste & other vegetables waste.
  • Retailing, packaging &labeling of organic products are also vital components in the promotion of organic products.

Organic Farming For Sustainable Agriculture Development

  • Organic agriculture provides high nutrient food to human beings & animals for their well-being.
  • Raising awareness, increasing market requirement, nurturing the attitude of the producer to become organic, increasing research & Govt. support have resulted into amazing development in organic agriculture Since last 2 decades in the world & India.
  • Global ranking of India in organic agriculture stood at eighth position w/1.78 million ha of are under it in 2017 share of organic agriculture land of India was 2.55 % in the total world of organics agriculture.
  • The area under organics farming in India, was over 17 lakh hectares & its total production was 16,75,560.70 metric tones in 2017 - 18.
  • In 2016 Sikkim became 1st organic state of India.

Concept of Organic Farming : -

  • ” Organic agriculture is a production systems that sustains the health of soil, ecosystems, & People.
  • It relies on ecological process, biodiversity & cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs w/adverse effects.
  • Organic agriculture combines tradition, innovation & science to benefit shred environment & promote fair relationships & a good quality of life for all involved “.

Principle of organic Agriculture: -

  • The Principle of health
  • The Principle of Ecology
  • The Principle of Fairness
  • The Principle of Care

Characteristics of Organic Farming: -

  • Protecting the long term fertility of soil by maintain organic matter levels, encouraging soil biological activity & careful mechanical intervention.
  • Providing crop nutrients indirectly using relatively insoluble source which are made available to the plant by the action of soil micro –organisms. Self- sufficient in nitrogen thru. use of legumes & biological nitrogen fixation & effective recycling of organics materials including crop residues & livestock manures.
  • Weed, disease & pest control by relying primarily on crop rotations, natural predators diversity, organic manuring, resistant varieties, & limited thermal, biological & chemical intervention.
  • Extensive mgmt. of livestock, paying full regards to their evolutionary adaptations, behavior need & animal welfare issues w/respect to nutrition, housing, health, breeding & rearing.
  • Careful attention to the impact of the farming system on the wider environment & the conservation of wildlife & natural habitats.
  • Sustainable Agriculture & Organic Farming: -
  • Sustainable agriculture integrates the main goal to sustain biodiversity enhance the quality of nature resources, economic profitability & Social equity.

Improving soil Fertility: -

  • Soil building practices such as crop rotations, Cover crop & organic fertilizers are central to organic practices.

Energy & Climate change: -

  • Thru. the used of leguminous cover crop, compost, & Other organics approved material for fertility mgmt. , organic farm often decrease the greenhouse gas emissions associated w/both infield & embedded emission component t.
  • Additionally, many of the practices associated w/certified organic production, such as diverse crop rotations, use of cover crop, & application of compost manures enhance the accumulation of carbon in soil.
  • Organic agriculture reduces no-renewable energy used by decreasing agrochemical needs.

Protection of Biodiversity: -

  • Variety of seeds & breeds are chosen for greater resistance to diseases, climate, & Pests.
  • Organic farmers are both custodians & users of biodiversity at all levels.
  • Components of organics farming for sustainable agriculture Development

Crop Rotation: -

  • It Is systematics arrangement for growing of various crops in more or less regular sequence on same land covering a period of 2 years & more.

Crop Residue: -

  • There is a great potential for utilizations of crop residues/straw of some of major crops. Abt 50 % of crop residues are utilized as animal fed, rest could be very well utilized for recycling of nutrients.

Manure: -

  • Organic manure is derived from biological source like plant, animal & human residues. Direct effect of organic manure relates to uptake of humic substances or its decomposition products affecting favorable growth & yield of plants.
  • Bulky Organic Manure: Farm yard manure (FYM) Compost Manure, green manure.
  • Concentrated Organic Manure: Concentrated Organic manures are made from raw materials of animal or plants origin.
  • These manure commonly used are oilcakes, blood meal, fishmeal, meat meal, & horn & hoof meal.
Image of Organic Farming

Image of Organic Farming

Image of Organic Farming

Waste: -

  • Industrial Waste: This industry have good manure can be used after proper decomposition.
  • Municipal and Sewage Waste

Biofertilizers: -

  • Biofertilizers is microorganism’s culture capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen when suitable crops are inoculated w/them.

Bio- Pesticide: -

  • Bio Pesticide are natural plant products that belong to the secondary metabolites, which include thousands of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, & minor secondary chemicals.

Vermicompost: -

  • Vermiculture has a component in biological farming, which is found to be effective in enhancing soil fertility & producing large number of agriculture crop.
  • it is organic manure produced by the activity of earthworms that generally live in soil, eat biomass & excrete it in digested from.
  • The average nutrient content of vermicompost is much higher than that of FYM.

Key indicate of organic Framing: World of India

  • Compound growth rate of world’s organic agriculture area was 6.78 % & that of India 9.69 % during 2005 - 17.
  • Countries w/highest organic share are Lichtenstein W/37.9 % of its agricultural & under organic practices.
  • India’s per capita consumption of organic food was 0.2 Euros as against the world’s per capita consumption (12.2 Euros)
  • In India among all the states Madhya Pradesh has effectively implemented organic practices and schemes.
  • Madhya Pradesh has the highest organic area & production w/i county since the last decade.

Conclusion:

  • Organic farming is based on the principle of maximum production w/high quality, w/o affecting the soil fertility & the environment.

- Published/Last Modified on: June 1, 2019

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