Kurukshetra MAY 2019: a Journal on Rural Development (Part-4) (Download PDF)

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Destruction of alternate host plants: Destruction of off-types & volunteer plants, thinning & topping, pruning & defoliation & summer ploughing are cultural method to reduce pest load in field.

  • Crop Rotations

  • Monocultures & overlapping crop seasons are more prone to severe outbreak of pests & disease. Growing rice after groundnut in garden land in puddled condition eliminates white grub.

  • Organic manures

  • Incidence of leafhopper in rice was low in Azospirillum combined manure lowered rice gall midge incidence.

  • Use of pest-resistant or tolerant varieties

  • Host plant resistance forms are imp. component of non-chemical method of pest mgmt.

  • Mechanical Method

  • Mechanical destruction:

  • Hand picking of caterpillars

  • Hooking of rhinoceros beetle adult w/iron hook

  • Sieving & winnowing for stored-product insect control

  • Shaking plants to dislodge caseworm in rice

  • Mechanical Exclusion:

  • Wrapping of fruits against pomegranate fruit borer

  • Banding w/grease – against mango mealybug

  • Trenching – for larvae of red hairy caterpillar

  • Tin barrier – around coconut tree trunk to prevent rat dammage

  • Using appliance:

  • Light trap for stem borer of rice

  • Yellow sticky traps for attracting aphids & jassids

  • Fish meal trap for sorghum shoot fly

  • Methyl eugenol trap for fruit flies

  • Probe trap for various adult insect

Women In organic Farming: Agents of Change

  • According to reports by the national sample survey office (NSSO), Agrarian Sector nearly employs 80 % of Woman worker.

  • Moreover 81 % of female agricultural Labourers belong to SC, ST & OBC Communities (ILO, 2010).

  • Indian Trible women of sundargarh district of estern India’s Odisha state have chosen to produce safe & Nutritious food, Achieving food security & a better livelihood thru. Organic farming.

  • Members of Oliva women farmers collective have received sereval accolades for growing about 12 crops – brinjal, chilly, tomato, cowpea, watermelon, beans, bitter gourd, ladies finger, sunflower, pumpkin & leafy vegetable – in a single season by dedicating a row to each crop.

  • Tribal women prefer growing food crop rather than cash crop because their priority is to meet their family’s nutritional requirement.

  • Janadhanya an association of women farmer in Karnataka seek to protect agro – biodiversity & promotes organic farming & market linkages for farmer produce to advance sustainable rural livehoods.

  • Representatives from a cluster of 5 to 7 village are nominated to be board of directors of Janadhanya.

  • Janadhanya’s network of 3,000 women across 17 villages, 694 have formed amller producer group (PG). 21 Group operate seed banks, process grains & produce organic input & vegetable seed mill edible oil, make vermicompost vermiwash & cattle feed.

Image of The Ramangara and Bhimadanga

Image of The Ramangara and Bhimadanga

Image of The Ramangara and Bhimadanga

  • Group of 10 - 15 women farmers in Ramangara district, Karnataka, owing anywhere b/w 0.5 - 1.5 acers of land, have come together to conserve & produce indigenous seeds, cultivate & Process grains, & compose organic inputs.

  • Bhimadanga village in Odisha eastern India: Empowering women farmers to manage their own seed enterprises enable them to become decision makers in the community. Short – grained kalajira is one of key scented rice varieties if India & gives a high yield in a short timespan

  • Pitchandikulam Bio-Resource center (PBRC) is working with 22 women’s self – help group (SHGs) within kazhuveli bioregion & along coromandel coast.

  • Women’s center is recently women’s SHGs to meet independently in a safe, stimulating environmental.

Health And Environmental Benefits Of Organics Farming

  • Health Benefits of organic Farming

  • Eating organically grown fruits & vegetable could increase body antioxidant intake by around 20 - 40%.

  • The work done at Indian institute of soil science, Bhopal has shown that pomegranate fruit quality parameters such as suguars, total soluble sugars (TSS) & ascorbic acid content content increased significantly w/application of integrated nutrient mgmt. (INM), Organic & inorganic mgmt. System.

  • The maximum TSS was recorded in cattle manure treatment, organically managed. Higher accumulation of ascorbic acid was recorded in INM treatment, followed by organic & inorganic treatments & was lowest in control.

  • Application of diff organic manure combinations increased protein & Sulphur containing amino acids in chickpea seeds.

  • Organic farming result in nutrient dense foods in from of increased concentration of major & micronutrients in grains/seeds of crop plant.

  • Organic livestock production system are higher animal welfare standard which lower levels of pathogens present in milk & meat.

  • Organic farming practices improve soil health & water quality in agriculture area.

  • Using biological means of nutrient supply i. e. thru. Composts, animal manures & legumes in a rotation & as cover crop build soil organic matter under organic farming.

  • A review of over 300 publication showed that out of 18 environmental impact indicators studied (floral diversity, faunal diversity, habitat diversity, landscape, soil biological activity, soil structure, soil erosion, nitrate leaching, pesticide residue, Co2, NO2, CH4, NH3, nutrient use, water use & energy use) organic farming systems performed significantly better in 12 & performed worse in none (Stolze et al 2000)

  • Under organic farming primary strategy to mitigate climate change is to increase carbon sequestration in soil thru. More use of organic manure & other organic inputs & avoidance of fertilizers & pesticides.

Role Of Nabard In Organic Farming

  • Impact in the Economy: -

  • “Low input farming” is the new socially –acceptable term for organic farming & economic survival is motivation for many young farmers.

  • Natural Capital- A New concept of Economy: -

  • Natural Capital includes a mind – boggling array of ecosystems services & resource provided by natural world, some of which we are yet to discover.

  • NABARD & Organic Farming: -

  • NABARD Consultancy services for organic farming:

  • Nabcons has know how on cultivation practices under organic farming thru.

  • Alternate Eco-friendly technology like biofertilizers, Bio pesticides, Neem Formulation, Bio-fuels etc.

  • Subsidy schemes of Nabard for organic Farming:

  • Capital investment subsidy scheme for commercial production unit of organic/biological input is being implemented by department of agriculture & cooperation thru. the national center of organic farming (NCOF) in collaboration w/NABARD.

  • Objectives of scheme are to promote organic farming in country by making available organic input, to increase agricultural productivity while maintaing soil health & environmental safety.

  • Estimated total cost for establishing a new biofertilizer or bio-pesticide production unit of 200 ton/annum capacity is about Rs. 160 lakhs & the estimated total project cost for establishing a new fruit & vegetable waste compost unit of 100TDP capacity is Rs. 200 lakhs.

  • Subsidy Component & Release of subsidy: -

  • Scheme provide credit linked & back –ended capital investment subsidy.

  • NABARD will release subsidy to unit financed by commercial bank, Regional rural Bank & other institution which are eligible for refinancing NABARD

- Published/Last Modified on: June 1, 2019

Kurukshetra

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