Kurukshetra March 2019: Perspectives in Rural Development (Part-1) (Download PDF)

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Key Topics Included In This Article: Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN), Pradhan Mantri Shram-Yogi Maandhan, Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog, National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP), Ayushman Bharat.

  • Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG)
  • Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana
  • Digital India Programme
  • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)
  • Start Up India
  • Self-Employment & Talent Utilisation (SETU)
  • National Rural Livelihood Mission (NLRM) /Aajeevika
  • Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
  • Pradhan Mantri Saubhagya Yojana
  • Poshan Abhiyan
  • Rural development generally refers to process of improving quality of life & economic condition of people living in rural areas.
  • Prime goal of rural development is to improve quality of life of rural people by alleviating poverty thru instrument of self-employment & wage employment programmes & by providing community infrastructure facilities like drinking water, electricity, road & communication connectivity, health facilities, housing & education.
  • Rural connectivity is key component of rural development & poverty alleviation in India. Main mechanism for enhancing rural connectivity in more systematic way is Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY).
  • For empowering rural India in healthcare, National Health Policy is envisioned to bring healthcare system closer to homes of people. Path of rural development India has adopted aims to making villages self-sufficient in matters of their vital requirements & easy availability of means of production of basic necessities of life.

Interim Budget 2019 - 2020: Thrust on Rural Economy

  • MSP of all 22 crops at min. 50 % more than cost is fixed w/aim to double income of farmers a few years ago.

Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samman Nidhi (PM-KISAN)

o Vulnerable landholding farmer families w/cultivable land upto 2 ha would be provided direct income support at rate of Rs. 6000 per year.

o Income support would be made over directly into bank a/c of beneficiaries farmers in 3 equal tranches of Rs. 2000 each.

o Programme would entail annual expenditure of 75,000 cr. Rs. in full year & providing 20,000 cr. of Rs. for last quarter of this fiscal in revised estimates of Fiscal Year 2019 - 20.

  • Secondary activity of animal husbandry & fisheries deserve leg up as livelihood support to rural populace, Govt. has enhanced allocation for Rashtriya Gokul Mission to 750 cr. of Rs.
  • It is proposed to inaugurate ‘Rashtriya Kamdhenu Aayog’ to upscale sustainable genetic up gradation of cow resources & to enhance production & productivity of cows & proposed Aayog will have remit to take care of effective implementation of laws & welfare schemes for cows.
  • Country is 2nd largest fish spawning nation in world accounting for 6.3 % of world fish catch.
  • It is proposed to provide benefit of 2 % interest subvention to farmers pursuing activities of animal husbandry & fisheries, who avail loan thru KCC.
  • National Disaster Relief Fund (NDRF) would be accorded benefit of interest subvention of 2% & prompt repayment incentive of 3 % for entire period of reschedule of their loans.
  • Pradhan Mantri Shram-Yogi Maandhan is launched for unorganized workers w/monthly income upto 15,000 Rs. . This Yojana would give them assured monthly pension of 3,000 Rs. from age of 60 years on monthly contribution of small affordable premium during working age.
  • At least 10 cr. laborers & workers in unorganized segment would avail benefit of new superannuation scheme w/I next 5 years.
  • Sum of 500 cr. Rs. is allocated for scheme.
  • Committee under NITI Aayog is to be set up to complete task of identifying de-notified, nomadic & semi-nomadic communities.
  • It is proposed to set up Welfare Development Board for purpose of implementing welfare & development programme for de-notified, nomadic & semi-nomadic communities.
  • Board would ensure that special strategies are designed & implemented to serve these hard-to-reach communities & integrate them w/mainstream of nation.

Agriculture – A Key Component of Rural Development

  • Inter-Ministerial Committee is constituted to meet challenges faced by agriculture sector & improving economic condition of farmers & to examine issues relating to doubling of farmer’s income in real terms by 2022.
  • 7 sources of income growth:

⁻ Improvement in crop & livestock productivity

⁻ Resource use efficiency or savings in cost of production

⁻ Increase in cropping intensity

⁻ Diversification towards high value crops

⁻ Improvement in real prices received by farmers

⁻ Shift from farm to non-farm occupations

  • These schemes are revamped for ensuring overall development of farm sector:

⁻ National Food Security Mission (NFSM)

⁻ Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)

⁻ National Mission on Oilseeds & Oilpalm (NMOOP)

⁻ National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA)

⁻ National Mission on Agricultural Extension & Technology (NMAET)

⁻ Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY)

Hike in MSP

  • MSP is increased for all notified Kharif & Rabi Crops & other commercial crops for season 2018 - 19 w/return of at least 50 % over cost of production.

PM-AASHA

  • This umbrella scheme comprises Price Support Scheme for pulses, oilseeds, Price Deficiency Payment Scheme & Pilot of Pvt. Procurement & Stockist Scheme for oilseeds to ensure MSP to farmers.

e-NAM

  • Scheme envisages initiation of marketing platform at national level & support creation of infrastructure to enable e-marketing in 585 regulated markets across country by March 2018.
  • Decision is taken to develop & upgrade existing rural haats into Gramin Agricultural Markets (GRAMs).
  • These GRAMs, electronically linked to e-NAM portal & exempted from regulations of Agriculture Produce Marketing Committees (APMCs). They will provide farmers facility to make direct sale to consumers & bulk purchasers.

PMFBY

  • Under this scheme, farmers pay uniform premium of just 2 % for more rain-dependent Kharif crops & 1.5 % for all Rabi crops.

Kisan Credit Card to Animal Husbandry & Fisheries Farmers

  • Facility of extension of KCC is provided to Animal Husbandry & Fisheries farmers. This was significant measures towards expanding credit outreach amongst those farmers who are engaged in agri-allied activities.
  • Aim is to provide short-term credit needs of farmers during sowing & harvesting of crops.
  • Agriculture Ministry implements ‘an interest subvention scheme’ for short-term crop loans upto Rs. 3 lakh.
  • Under subvention scheme, additional subvention of 3 % is given to those farmers who repay their short term crop loan on time, thus reducing effective rate of interest to only 4 % per annum.
  • All farmers affected by severe natural calamities, where assistance is provided from NDRF will be provided benefit of interest subvention of 2% & prompt repayment incentive of 3 % for entire period of re-schedulement of their loans.

Financial Inclusion for Economic Security

  • RBI is complementing Govt. ‘s efforts thru its numerous initiatives like introduction of priority sector lending requirements for banks, establishment of RRBs, SHG-bank linkage program to extend financial services to poor & marginalized segments of society.
  • NABARD being apex bank for agriculture & rural development of country is making all-out efforts in this direction.
  • GoI & Indian Bank’s Association launched ‘Swabhiman’, to bridge economic gap b/w rural & urban India.
  • It aimed at ensuring availability of banking facilities w/I reach of every village w/population of over 2000 by end of March, 2012.
  • Banks in villages were supposed to facilitate villagers in opening no-frills accounts, getting need-based credit & remittance facilities to transfer funds from one place to another.
  • RBI undertook some measures to augment financial inclusion, like granting in-principle approval to largest Micro Finance Institutions in India to commence banking operations, permitting Non-banking Financial Companies to act as business correspondents for banks & issuing guidelines on differentiated banking licenses for Small Banks & Payment Banks based on recommendations of committee on ‘Comprehensive Financial Services for Small Business & Low Income Households’.
  • NABARD launched Self-Help Group-Bank Linkage program in 1992. Program has taken shape of perhaps biggest Micro-Credit Program of world, w/87 lakh & SHGs operating in all nooks & corners of rural & semi-urban India.
  • This program besides achieving target of Financial Literacy enabled rural Indian women in starting some or other productive farm or non-farm activity.
  • Scheme of joint liability groups (JLG) is institutional invention introduced in India w/view to enable landless/tenant farmers, oral lessees, secure collateral-free loans for productive purposes from banking system.
  • RBI permitted banks to employ 2 categories of intermediaries – Business Correspondents (BCs) & Business Facilitators (BFs).
  • Ministry of Finance (MOF) & National Informatics Centre (NIC) have jointly developed mobile app called Jan Dhan Darshak w/view to enable common people in locating financial service touch-point.
  • While over 5 lakh financial institution FI touch points (Bank branches, ATMs, Post Offices) are mapped on this App, approx. 1.35 lakh Bank Mitras are on-boarded.
  • Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) aims to facilitate disbursement of govt. entitlements such as those under social security pension scheme, handicapped old-age pension scheme, of any central or state govt. bodies, using Aadhaar & authentication as supported by UIDAI.
  • Payments Bank focuses at enhancing Financial Inclusion drive by widening spread of payment & financial services to small business, low-income households, migrant workforce in secured technology-driven environment.
  • Role M-banking & Department of Post is highly significant. Filing cash into m-commerce bank account in one place & withdrawing cash from any ATM, frictionless, from any other place thru debit card, even cash withdrawn or paid in more rural location, thru any point of sale terminal w/business correspondent thus facilitating financial inclusion are special features of Payment Banks.
  • Deep penetration at affordable cost is possible w/effective use of technology, by way of Every bank Account to be on-line w/RuPay Card & Mobile Banking Facility, use of e-KYC to ease account opening process, use of Aadhaar-Enabled Payment System (AEPS) for interoperability, support for setting up of Financial Literacy Centres, support for demonstrating banking technology, bringing all cooperative banks & Regional Rural Banks on CBS platform for providing anytime & anywhere banking to rural populace, online monitoring thru system generated MIS & facility Call Centre & Toll Free number.
  • In order to systematically accelerate level of financial inclusion in country in sustainable manner, National Strategy for Financial Inclusion document is being finalised under aegis of Financial Inclusion Advisory Committee to take forward momentum.
  • World Bank’s latest Global Findex data proves that India has made rapid strides in improving access to formal financial services.

Infrastructure for Rural Transformation

6 components include under Bharat Nirman: Irrigation, Drinking Water, Electrification, Roads, Housing & Rural Telephony.

  • Govt. continued laying focus on creation of rural infrastructure thru development plans & other subject specific schematic interventions.

Irrigation Infrastructure

  • Creation of irrigation potential & expansion of installed capacity are imp. policy objectives of India’s development planning.
  • During 2016 - 17,99 ongoing Major/Medium Irrigation projects were prioritized for early completion under PMKSY-Accelerated Irrigation Benefits Programme (AIBP).
  • These unfinished projects, w/additional irrigation potential of 76.03 lakh ha are targeted for completion in phases up to Dec. , 2019 along w/their Command Area Development & Water Mgmt. (CADWM) works w/estimated cost of Rs. 77,595 cr.
  • Full utilization of irrigation potential requires actions like:

o Timely completion of field channels & drains

o Appropriate land leveling & shaping

o Involvement of farmers in taking decisions on usability of such created potential.

Rural Drinking Water Supply

  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) ‘s concerted focus on creation & sustaining rural drinking water infrastructure resulted in development of infrastructure & capacities for successful operation of drinking water supply schemes in rural areas.
  • Country’s long-term goal is to achieve ‘Har Ghar Jal’ by 2030, in line w/UN’s Sustainable Development Goals, providing safe & adequate drinking water to each rural household.
  • Challenge before govt. is to ensure:

o Safe drinking water in slipped back habitations thru vigorous restoration of defunct bore pumps, carrying out repairs to water supply pipelines, augmentation of supply wherever required

o Sustainability of quality water supply to already covered under one or other schemes.

  • Need of hour is to ensure convergence of various rural development initiatives of like Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, watershed development, restoration of water bodies backed by need-based village-level water planning & budgeting.

Rural Sanitation

  • Around 5.45 lakh villages are declared ‘Open Defecation Free’ by Dec. , 2018.

Rural Electrification

  • Govt. had launched PM Saubhagya Yojana for providing electricity to all households of country.
  • 4 cr. poor households were intended for providing w/electricity connection free of charge in Interim Budget 2019 - 20 w/outlay of Rs. 16,000 cr.
  • Ministry of Power, in association w/Rural Electrification Corporation under DDUGJY & Saubhagya could provide 2.31 cr. service connections to rural households.
  • To ensure quality & sustained power supply in rural areas, there is need to switch-over from free or subsidy-driven power distribution system to competitive user-based revenue collection & sharing model.

Rural Roads

  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) – provides rural connectivity, by way of single all-weather road, to eligible unconnected habitations in core network.
  • PMGSY roads – known for their quality of construction & durability.
  • To ensure quality in construction of rural roads, vigorous quality control measures were followed by independent quality checks & measurements.

Rural Housing

  • Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana-Rural (PMAY-R) – to fulfill Govt. ‘s vision of ‘Housing for All by ‘.
  • It allows inclusion of beneficiaries not covered under Socio-Economic Caste Census.
  • It provides for separate beneficiaries list to be recorded in Gram Sabha resolution.
  • For effective implementation of scheme, beneficiaries need to actively participate throughout construction process.
  • Active participation of beneficiary in housing project like PMAY-G will result in economy in cost, ensure quality of construction, lead to grater satisfaction & acceptance of house by beneficiary himself/herself.

Rural Telephone Connectivity

  • To provide every Indian village w/telephone access & to cover difficult areas, additional mobile towers are sanctioned.
  • BharatNet project aims at creating network to connect all 2.5 lakh Gram Panchayats by broadband connectivity.
  • Policy of connecting village panchayats w/broadband will ensure seamless transmission of information & empower these grass-root level democratic institutions.

Conclusion

  • Infrastructure provides basic framework for economic & social progress of country.
  • Rural infrastructure involves irrigation, rural housing, rural water supply, rural electrification & rural telecommunication connectivity.
  • Initiatives for building rural infrastructure & related schemes envisages enhancement of socio-economic status of rural people.
  • Continued emphasis on rural infrastructure & social sectors indicates country’s resolve towards ensuring inclusive growth.

Healthcare Interventions for Rural India

  • National Health Policy (NHP) 2017 – aimed to provide Preventive & Promotive Healthcare & Universal access to good quality healthcare services thru mix of public & private healthcare services.
  • NHP 2017 expressed its vision for Universal Health Coverage & creating affordable & quality healthcare for all.
  • Policy is assuring availability of free, comprehensive primary healthcare services, for all aspects of reproductive, maternal, child & adolescent health & for most prevalent communicable, non-communicable & occupational diseases in population.
  • Emphasis is on establishing ‘continuum of care’, for delivery of health services to protect health of women & children in integrated manner at all life stages like adolescence & reproductive age, pre & post-natal period & early childhood.
  • It is planned that healthcare services should cover all levels of healthcare systems to reach out to rural population at household level, community & village level thru ASHA, ANM, & Ayushman Mitra.

Key Initiatives & Interventions

Ayushman Bharat

o 2 major initiatives in health sector are taken.

⁻ 1st is Health & Wellness Centres

⁻ 2nd is National Health Protection Scheme (NHPM)

o Goal - To address health needs in holistic manner in primary, secondary & tertiary care systems, covering both prevention & health promotion.

o NHP 2017 has envisioned Health & Wellness Centres as foundation of India’s health system.

o 1.5 lakh centres will bring healthcare system closer to homes of people. Centres will provide comprehensive healthcare, including for non-communicable diseases & maternal & child health services, free essential drugs & diagnostic services.

o NHPM will cover over 10 cr. poor & vulnerable families providing coverage upto 5 lakh Rs. per family per year for secondary & tertiary care hospitalization.

o Under NHPM, provision is of coverage of medical & hospitalization expenses at secondary care & tertiary care procedures. It is planned to have ‘Ayushman Mitra’ to assist patients & coordinate w/beneficiaries & hospital

National Nutrition Mission

o NNM comprising mapping of various Schemes contributing towards addressing malnutrition, including vary robust convergence mechanism, ICT based Real Time Monitoring system, incentivizing States/UTs for meeting targets, incentivizing Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) for using IT based tools, eliminating registers used by AWWs, introducing measurement of height of children at Anganwadi Centres 9AWCs), Social Audits, setting-up Nutrition Resource Centres, involving masses thru Jan Andolan for their participation on nutrition thru various activities.

Poshan Abhiyan

o It covers all schemes, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Swachh Bharat, Adolescent Care, Prenatal & Post Natal Care, Supplementary Nutrition, Breast Feeding Counselling, Immunization, Growth Monitoring.

o Govt. has fixed targets to reduce stunting, under-nutrition, Anaemia & reduce low birth weight by 2%, 2%, 3% & 2 % per annum respectively.

o Mission strives to achieve reduction in Stunting from 38.4 % to 25 % by 2022.

o ASHA & AWW are supposed to work in collaboration to improve institutional visits, nutrition outcomes, physical & mental growth of child thru home visits to create awareness for proper utilisation of all facilities & benefits provided under scheme.

o Aim is to make programme as ‘Jan Andolan’ to educate people on nutritional aspects thru various methods of Information, Education & Communication (IEC).

o Coverage of dist. in phased manner is 315 dist. in 2017 - 18,235 dist. in 2018 - 19 & remaining dist. in 2019 - 20.

Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG)

o Aim of breaking inter-generational life-cycle of nutritional & gender disadvantage thus providing supportive environment for self-development of adolescent girls.

o Govt. approved implementation of restructured Scheme for Adolescent Girls (SAG) to focus on out of school adolescent girls in age group of 11 - 14 years.

o Scheme is to be implemented using platform of Anganwadi Services of Umbrella ICDS Scheme thru Anganwadi Centres (AWCs).

o Objective is to facilitate, educate & empower Adolescent Girls so as to enable them to become self-reliant & aware citizens.

o Scheme implemented in 205 dist. & is expanded in phased manner. In Phase-1, scheme extended w/revised financial norms to additional 303 high burden dist. identified under NNM. In phase-2, scheme extended w/revised financial norms to all dist.

o Scheme is covering 2 components:

1stis Nutrition Component – each out of school AGs in age group of 11 - 14 years registered under scheme will be provided supplementary nutrition similar to that of pregnant women & lactating mothers under ICDS containing 600 calories, 18 - 20 grams of protein & micronutrients for 300 days in a year. Nutrition to be given in form of Take Home Ration (THR) or Hot Cooked Meals (HCM).

⁻ 2nd component is Non-Nutrition Component.

o Scheme aims at motivating out of school girls in age group of 11 - 14 years to go back to formal schooling or skill training under non-nutrition component of scheme.

Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana

o A cash incentive of Rs. 5,000/- is provided directly to Bank/Post Office Account of Pregnant Women & Lactating Mothers (PW&LM) for 1st living child of family subject to fulfilling specific conditions relating to Maternal & Child Health.

o Scheme is implemented using platform of Anganwadi Services scheme of Umbrella Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS).

o It is implemented thru centrally deployed Web Based MIS Software application & focal point of implementation would be AWC & ASHA/ANM workers.

o Only Govt. hospitals have authority to register MCP Card, beneficiary taking services from pvt. hospitals can’t avail benefit of scheme as MCP card details are mandatory for claiming any instalment under PMMVY.

Way Forward

  • To assess standards of public health services, govt. developed Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS) & all healthcare facility should be monitored & regulated according to these standards.
  • Primary healthcare programme which gives special emphasis on preventive & promotive services is backbone of India’s health system.

- Published/Last Modified on: April 3, 2019

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