Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary: Technology for Rural Development (Part - 2) (Download PDF)


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Reducing Drudgery through Technology - Intervention of farm technologies & drudgery reducing equipments has played pivotal role in enhanced agricultural productivity under NFSM (National Food Security Mission) for 12th Plan. This comprised of production of additional 25 million tons of food grains, which included 10 million tons of rice, 10 million tons of wheat, 3 million tons of pulses & 2 million tons of millet.

  • According to estimation of International Labour Organization, women perform 1/3rdof world’s counted labor.

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Technology for Rural Development: Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Technology for Rural Development

Types of Drudgery for Farmers

  • All labour intensive works lead to drudgery or fatigue in form of physical or mental stress.

  • Crucial examples of women farmers have also been noticed facing depression, anaemia, abortion, miscarriage & other gynecological problems.

  • If farmers be made aware w/available drudgery reducing tools & equipments, these would not only contribute in drudgery reduction; but also increase their capability, productivity & improve efficiency.

Minimizing Drudgery

  • 👌 Ergonomically designed cotton picking bags (Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani & CCS, Haryana Agriculture University) have higher carrying capacity & ease in typing proved significantly superior over those picking bags having longer picking time w/less interruptions.

  • Tubular maize sheller, sitting type groundnut decorticator, seed treatment drum, Naveen sickle & groundnut stripper have been introduced in past to reduce farmer’s drudgery.

  • Use of sitting type groundnut decorticator reduced finger pain (73%), hand pain (60%), backache (40%), tooth pain (66%) & cuts in mouth (70%). Use of groundnut stripper reduced hand pain (80%), shoulder pain (77%) & waist pain (67%).

  • Use of Naveen sickle has reduced cuts on finger due to rubbing of hand in harvesting ground level crops (80%), pain in waist & hand (70%) & physical tiredness (73%) caused by local sickle.

  • 👌 ICAR-CIAE (Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering), Bhopal, MP is nationally & internationally premier Agricultural Engineering Research & Development Institute devoted to develop & promote appropriate technologies for land development, farm mechanization, irrigation, processing of agro-produce, utilizing renewable, animate & mechanical power sources.

Seed Drill

  • Traditional method, furrow is opened by hand hoe in soil & seeds are placed. Operations are done in bending posture, which causes pain in waist & back of farmers.

  • 👌 Metering of seed is done by fluted roller, which is operated by ground wheel by sprocket & chain mechanism.

  • 👌 Capacity of innovative tool is 0.04 hectare per hour.

Hand Ridger

  • While farming operations, women farmers very often bend or squat & pull soiltowards them to make small ridges & furrows. It puts strain & they suffer pain in back & shoulders. They often complain of spondylitis. Hand Ridger is incredibly simple & useful labour saving improved equipment.

  • 👌 Ridger includes 2 heart-shaped metallic wings & pulling beam w/T-type handle.

  • Capacity of equipment is 0.03 hectare per hour & cost is Rs. 700.

Twin Wheel Hoe Weeder

  • Traditional manual weeding by hand hoe (Khurpi) is labour intensive process.

  • Farmers usually bend & keep moving in field while they take out weeds & remove unwanted vegetative growth b/w rows/plants.

  • This causes pain & stiffness in waist, neck & back in long run due to bending/squatting posture. Women farmers often complain of pelvic pain.

Improved Sickle

  • Harvesting cereal crops is usually done by women workers using local sickle. Local sickle is heavy weighing about 300 to 350 gm which causes pain in wrist.

  • On other hand, improved & serrated sickle requires less cutting force & cutting edge retains sharpness for long time. Its low weight turns less fatigue on wrist.

Bhindi Plucker

  • Plucking bhindi is messy job since it lacerates skin of farmers. Fine rather tough & prickly skin of bhindi causes much irritation in harvesting.

  • This is small sized tool which can be used to pluck Bhindi very easily & that too w/o causing any itching or discomfort.

Coconut Dehusker

  • Traditionally deshusking of coconut is done by sharp iron shovel called Muna fixed on wooden log or w/help of long knife which is dangerous & accident prone.

  • Coconut Dehusker splits/opens coconut partially at several points thus making dehusking by hands far easier.

Government Schemes & Awareness Generation

  • 👌 Few such schemes are Macro Management of Agriculture, National Food Security Mission (NFSM), Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), National Horticulture Mission.

  • Under schemes, Govt. has distributed nearly 30.16 lakh improved farm machineries including water saving devices & drudgery reducing equipments.

  • Multimedia compendium on women friendly improved farm tools for agro-drudgery reduction has been brought out by Vigyan Prasar.

Financial Inclusion through Technology

  • Most imp. concepts to deliberate upon here are Financial Inclusion, Financial literacy & role of technology in State Level Bankers Committee. Financial inclusion is process of ensuring access to appropriate financial products & services needed by all sections of society in general & vulnerable groups such as weaker sections & low income groups in particular at an affordable cost in fair & transparent manner by mainstream institutional players.

  • Underprivileged sections of rural India- approx. 51.4 % of farmer households are financially excluded. Of total farmer households, 27 % access formal sources of credit.

  • 👌 In Kenya, nearly 2 - 3rd of all adults are active customers of mobile phone-based money transfer & payments service, & 50 % of mobile phone owners in Tanzania actively use mobile money systems.

  • 👌 Biggest components of financial inclusion is financial literacy.

  • Task has been assigned to apex agriculture & rural development bank (NABARD), which has been working towards bringing excluded population into formal banking system by addressing both demand & supply side constraints.

  • 👌 PM’s mission to “transform India into digitally-empowered society & knowledge-economy” digitization of SHGs project

  • 📝 PMJDY- National Mission on Financial Inclusion, this deep penetration at an affordable cost is possible only w/effective use of technology by way of Every Bank A/c to be on-line w/RuPay Card & Mobile Banking Facility, use of e-KYC to ease account opening process, use of Aadhar Enabled Payment System (AEPS) support for Mobile Van fitted w/ATM, online Monitoring thru system & facility of Call Centre & Toll free number.

Image of Six Pillars of the Scheme

Image of Six Pillars of the Scheme

Image of Six Pillars of the Scheme

  • RBI started Business Correspondent model in 2006. Business Correspondents are representatives appointed by banks to act as their agents, who provide banking services in remote locations, bank may not have presence, at doorsteps of poorest.

  • Digital India initiative, coupled w/payment infrastructure is laying cornerstone for digital economy.

  • 👌 All cooperative banks & Regional Rural Banks have been brought on CBSplatform for providing anytime & anywhere banking to rural populace. RuPay Kisan Cards have been providing impetus to cashless transactions among farming community.

  • It was necessary to create an ecosystem in rural India where populace could use its cards to carry out digital transactions & not just use it on cash-dispensing machines.

  • 👌 Direct Benefits Transfer scheme was initiated to facilitate disbursements of govt. entitlements such as those under social security pension scheme, handicapped old age pension

  • 👌 Since connectivity & power issues can badly affect banking services & more in remote areas, all coop. banks in NER & A&N Islands, have been made eligible for support for solar powered V-SATs from ‘Financial Inclusion Fund’. V-SAT connectivity support is extended to all banks for new branches being opened in identified LWE dist. , restricted to 7 branches per dist.

  • 👌 2 schemes viz. Lucky Grahak Yojana & Digi-Dhan Vyapar Yojana was funded thru Financial Inclusion for consumers & merchants respectively.

  • 👌 Financial Literacy Awareness Programs were recast as d-FLAP, w/objective of transition from a cash-based economy to less-cash one.

The Way Forward

👌 Forthcoming recommendations of Dr. Nachiket Mor Committee, Dr. Sambamurthy Committee, guide to expand mobile banking in India thru encrypted SMS based funds transfer in any type of handset.

Akruti Technology Package for Rural Entrepreneurs

  • 👌 Department of Atomic Energy has launched DAE – Societal Initiative for utilization of non-Power Applications (NPAs) & Spinoff technologies (Spinoffs) in area of water, land, agriculture, food processing & urban-rural waste management.

  • 👌 With this framework of societal initiative, structured program called “AKRUTI-KRUTIK-FORCE” has been formulated & is being implemented by BARC for techno-economic growth of rural sector, as one of many schemes for large-scale deployment of BARC technologies – 4thKey Driver of Major programs of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) & Vision of NITI Aayog for social outreach & awareness.

  • 👌 AKRUTI is acronym for Advanced Knowledge & RUral Technology Implementation initiative

Akruti Tech Pack for Techno-Economic Activity

Akruti Teck Pack’ (ATP) for Exclusive Rural Deployment on chargeable basis is technology package introduced in year 2009 for desirous technically oriented individuals including women in villages to promote techno-economic activity in rural sector thru AKRUTI at affordable price.

📝 ATP Technologies

ATP is made of 12 technologies as given below:

Table contain shows the ATP Technologies

Table contain shows the ATP Technologies

S. No.



Nisargruna – Biogas plant based on biodegradable waste


Soil Organic Carbon Detection & Testing Kit (SOCDTK)


Vibro Thermal Disinfestor (VTD)


Foldable Solar Dryer (FSD)


Process for retaining Pericarp Colour & extending shelf life of Litchi, novel process, wherein fruits after treatment can be stored at low temp. upto 45 days.


Domestic Water Purifier (DWP) – technology to get bacteria free clean drinking water w/o use of elec.


Solar Energy driven Portable Domestic Brackish Water Reverse Osmosis (BWRO) technology – technology based on solar photovoltaic (PV) system. It has capacity of 10 ltr/hr which can desalinate contaminated water of salinity 1000 - 3000 ppm to provide drinking water of 50 - 300 ppm. Product water will be devoid of toxic elements, pathogens & turbidity. It is best suited for remote/rural areas where elect. is not available or voltage is not stable.


Dip N Drink (DND) Membrane Pouch, technology to convert biologically contaminated water into sterile solution for oral consumption, useful during flood, cyclones, tsunami, earthquakes, etc. in remote areas/villages.


Banana Tissue Culture (BTC) Technology for mass-production of commercially imp. banana varieties. This technology can be used for conservation & multiplication to desired scale, of several other locally imp. , elite, endangered & ornamental banana varieties.


Mass multiplication medium of Bio fungicide Trichoderma spp.


Microfine Neem Biopesticide


Nanocomposite Ultrafiltration Membrane Device For Domestic Drinking Water Purification W. R. T. Arsenic, Iron & Microbial Contaminations

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Technology for Rural Development: Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Technology for Rural Development

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- Published/Last Modified on: June 1, 2018


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