Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary: Technology for Rural Development (Part - 3 ) (Download PDF)


Preservation of agri-produce thru Irradiation - Radiation technology can be effectively used in preserving agriculture produce, improving food safety & enhancing international trade by overcoming trade barriers.

Loading video•••

Technology for Rural Development: Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Technology for Rural Development

Conditions For Deployment Of Akruti Tech Pack

  • NISARGRUNA can be set up in villages as well as urban sector.

Training Facility

📝 BARC has signed MoU w/following institutes under XII plan project:

  • SLBS Engineering College, Jodhpur, Rajasthan

  • SJC Institute of Technology (SJCIT), Chickballapur, Karnataka

  • Anu Bose Institute of Technology, Paloncha, Khammam Dist, Telangana

  • NIT, Tiruchirappalli (Trichy), Tamil Nadu

  • Raipur Institute of Technology, Raipur

  • School of Agricultural Sciences & Rural Development (SASRD), Nagaland University, Medziphema Campus, Medziphema, Nagaland

  • Manipur Science & Technology Council, (MASTEC), Imphal, Manipur

  • HNB Garhwal University, Uttarakhand

  • GITAM University, Vishakhapatnam, AP (Technology Display & Dissemination Centre in R&R Colony, Dibbapalem)

  • Utkal University, Bhubaneshwar, Odisha (DAE Outreach Centre at Vanivihar Campus)

Role of ICTs in Rural Development

Integration of Communication & Information Technologies as ICTs

  • 👌 ICTs mean whole range of technologies concerned w/management & exchange of information.

  • 👌 Use of ICT is attributed to emergence of advance processors, memory devices, internet, multimedia & information highways.

Digital Divide

  • There is Digital-Divide b/w have’s (Urban) & have-nots (Rural).

Digital India

👌 Digital India mainly has 3 core components

  • Creation of digital infrastructure

  • Delivering services digitally

  • Digital literacy

📝 ICTs for Rural Development

  • For Management of Rural Development Programs

  • For e-Governance (including Services Delivery System)

  • For Agricultural Extension Services & Marketing

  • For Climate Change & Natural Resource Management

  • For Rural Health Care Services

  • For Disaster Management in Rural Areas

  • For Rural Connectivity

  • For Education

  • For Social Justice & Empowerment

  • For Public Distribution System

  • For Rural Tourism


  • 👌 Management Information System (MIS) for planning, implementing & monitoring of MGNREGA program is named as NREGASoft. This provides interface for stakeholders (officials, workers, citizens) to capture & explore all activities under MGNREGs.

  • Integration of GEOMGNREGA & SECURE w/NREGASoft enhanced its capability.

  • 👌 GEOMGNREGA web/mobile application facilities capturing, publishing & viewing of geospatial data of asset created under MGNREGs using BHUVAN.

  • 👌 SECURE (Software for Estimate Calculation Using Rural rates for Employment) is ICT based solution for estimate preparation & online approval process of Administrative/Technical Sanctions for Mahatma Gandhi NREGA works.

MIS for Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana (PMAY) -Gramin

  • 👌 AWAASSoft is an ICT based solution for PMAY-G

MIS for Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) erstwhile IWMP

  • 👌 Project Implementing Agency (PIA) feeds data related to Gram Panchayat & Watershed Committee.

Panchayat Enterprise Suite (PES)

  • 👌 E-Panchayat, a Mission Mode Projects (MMP) under Digital India Program that seeks to completely transform functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs)

  • Some core applications under PES:

    • Plan Plus: helps in preparation of participatory Gram Panchayat Development Plan (GPDP).

    • Action Soft: provides interface for Financial & Physical progress reporting of all works carried out from approved plan.

    • PRIA Soft: basically accounting software to capture receipts/exp. details thru voucher entries

    • National Panchayat Portal (NPP): provides dynamic web site for each local body.

    • Service Plus: portal to provide electronic delivery of basic services to citizens.

mKisan & eNAM

  • 👌 mKisan Portal for farmers enables all Central & State govt. organizations in agriculture.

  • 👌Agriculture marketing presently, eNational Agriculture Market (eNAM) is pan-India electronic trading portal.


  • 👌The ePathshala educational portal, joint initiative of MHRD & NCERT has been deployed for providing all educational e-resources.

Common Service Centre (CSC)

  • 👌CSC are providing citizen centric services including issue of various certificates

Aadhar enabled Public Distribution System (AePDS)

  • 👌Haryana is implementing AePDS for online ration cards.

eUpchar & Hospital Management System

  • eUpchar patients get unique identification number to store their health records.


👌HARIS (Haryana Registration Information System) & HALRIS (Haryana Land Records Information System)

📝 Challenges of ICTs in Rural Development

  • Continuous Supply of Electricity

  • Low level of Digital Literacy

  • Shortage of ICTs Personnel

  • Lack of Access of Telecommunications & Internet Services

  • Unavailability of Web Content in Local Language

  • Acceptance in Rural People

  • Unethical Use of ICTs

Generating Clean Energy from Waste

  • In India, 234 million tons of surplus biomass w/potential of Rs. 1 lakh cr. fossil fuel import replacement has been estimated.

  • Some of 1st generation technologies of animals dung gas, ethanol from sugars & starch, bio-diesel production & power generation are not competitive due to market forces & availability of better alternative technologies.

  • Tariff rates of generated elec. of Rs. 7.50 to 8.1/unit is unviable as compared to Rs. 2.44/unit of solar & wind power.

  • Anaerobic digestion of mixed feed stocks of paddy straw w/cattle dung; industrial wastes & activated sewage sludge has further raised productivity of CNG

  • 👌 CNG being neat & clean fuel w/zero foot prints of greenhouse gases have been suggested by National Green Tribunal

  • India is polluted country w/1.6 million pre-mature deaths & 49 million disability adjusted life years due to household & ambient air pollution

  • 👌 Budget 2018 - 19 envisages incentives for ‘Waste to Wealth’ including GOBARDHAN scheme for realizing Rs. 1 lakh cr. economy focused on bio-CNG generation.

  • 👌 Budget has also announced incentive of Rs. 7000 cr. for public sector Oil Marketing companies including GAIL to set up CNG purchase & sale infrastructure.

  • Indian Oil Company has also signed MoU of Rs. 5000 cr. w/Punjab & investors to planning to set up 400 plants in rural sector. Punjab Govt. has also transferred Panchayat land to Petroleum Ministry for investing Rs. 600 cr. for setting up Bio Refinery in Bathinda w/feed stock of paddy & other crop residues.

First Generation Technologies

  • 👌 Bio-diesel plantations of Jatropha, Jojoba, Olive oil & other oil bearing trees especially on waste lands.

Green Revolution Technologies

  • About 234 Mt of biomass of crops, sugarcanes, horticulture & others is surplus for producing bio-energy worth Rs. 1 lakh cr.

  • High productivity & cropping intensity of mono rice-wheat system has created environmental problems of burning crops residues.

  • Shredding & mulching of crop stubbles for quick seeding of next crop w/Happy Seeders 👌 (Happy Seeder is one of unique technique which is used for sowing wheat w/o any burning of rice residue) requires higher investment & subsidy of Rs. 1151 cr. for Punjab, Haryana, UP & Delhi for heavy machinery has been provided in current budget.

Second Generation (2G) Bio Fuel Technologies

  • 👌 1st generation technologies focused primarily on sugar, starch, plantations & competed for limited land

  • 👌 2G technologies aim at cost effective, import substitution & pollution free bio fuels production.


Loading video•••

National Policy on Biofuels 2018: Key Highlights (Important) - 3 Types

Dr. Manishika Jain explains the key highlights of biofuel, biodiesel and National Policy on Biofuels 2018

Crop residues as Fuel

  • 👌 Traditionally part of crop residues as cotton sticks are used for cooking food.

  • 👌 High alkalinity, silicon & low melting point of rice straw ash corrodes, klinkers, slags & fouls boilers.

Anaerobic Digestion Technology

  • 👌 1st anaerobic digester for human excreta in world was demonstrated in India in 1859 near Mumbai for lighting up lepers colony set away from city.

  • 👌 Rice straw is hollow, coated w/hard layer of lignin w/relatively higher contents of carbon, celluloses & hemi-celluloses as compared to sugars, starches used for ethanol production in 1st generation technologies

  • Production of Bio CNG gas from 18 million tons of paddy straw alone being burnt amounts to sales of Rs. 8300 cr. & more than that of compost & liquid manure

Advanced Technology

  • 👌 Bio-gas needs further purification by removing carbon dioxide & Hydrogen sulphide for arriving at BIS standards compressed CNG for vehicular & other purposes.

Convergence, coordination, co-generation & co-placement

  • Rice straw w/high carbon content is difficult feed stock & mixing it w/low carbon & relatively high nitrogen animal dung, food wastes, spoiled potatoes, activated sewage sludge, wastes of milk, meat, vegetables & fruit processing plants increase overall productivity of both bio & methane gas.

Gobar-Dhan: Re-Emphasizing India’s Traditional Practices

  • 👌 Galvanizing Organic Bio Agro Resources Dhan (GOBAR-DHAN) scheme contribute towards management & conversion of cattle dung & solid waste in farms to compost, fertilizer, bio-gas & bio-CNG.

  • India boasts of cattle population of over 300 million according to 19th Livestock Census in 2012. Huge population depicts enormous potential for biogas, considering dung production of roughly 10kg/capita & 25kg of dung produces 1 m3 of biogas as rule of thumb.

Evolution of Biogas Technology in India

  • 👌 1st biogas plant was designed at India Agricultural Research Institute by N. V. Joshi.

  • Early plants were expensive, were prone to explosions & lacked output efficiency to be commercially viable.

  • 👌 Development of floating dome model by Jashbhai Patel & its promotion by Khadi & Village Industry Commission in name of KVIC model.

  • Research on various technologies of anaerobic digestion continued w/development of Janata Model based in UP & known to be 30 % cheaper.

  • 👌 Towards end of 1975 - 81, biogas program inducted into 20 point program designed by GoI, followed by National Program for Biogas development (NPBD) by Ministry of Agriculture, GoI

  • 👌 1984, new design called Deenbandhu biogas plant was introduce, considered to reduce installations costs further.

  • 👌 1996, there was 7 biogas plant designs available in market which included Janata, Deenbandhu & Flexi design

The Way Forward

  • Govt. must streamline & fast track implementation & disbursement of eligible subsidy either under National Biogas & Manure Management Program or GOBAR-DHAN Yojana to ensure sustainable replicability.

Combating Drought through Farm Pond Technology

  • Farm ponds are considered as best mechanisms to mitigate drought in rainfed rural areas. Govt. is encouraging viable technology & supporting farmers thru subsidies, but main hindrance for implementation is loss of 5 - 10 % of farm land.

  • Floods & water logging following heavy or incessant rainfall causes destruction of crops, life & property.

  • Productivity in rainfed ecosystem in India is not exceeding 1.0 t/ha as compared to 2.5 t/ha under irrigated ecosystem.

Farm Ponds

  • Collecting surface runoff flowing from catchment area. It is ex-situ method of water conservation. It is called as on farm reservoir.

  • Construction of farm ponds need large catchment area w/minimum slope of > 1 - 2%

  • Small farm ponds of size 100 - 300 m3 can be dug for storing runoff water. Having capacity of 250 - 300 m3 for each hectare of catchment area is ideal to collect run-off.

  • 👌 2 situations where farm ponds are generally filled viz. , high intensity rainfall ( > 2 inch/hr) & cyclonic rainfall.

  • 👌 Seepage & evaporation are main 2 problems associated w/farm ponds.

  • In unlined farm ponds in Alfisols, water loss thru seepage is substantial, while, it is very less in Vertisols.

📝 Benefits of Farm Ponds

  • Provide water for part or full of year depending on its size.

  • If Farm pond is filled in summer & there is late onset of monsoon in June, harvested water can be utilized for sowing & establishment of rainfed crops.

  • Osman (2009) has reported that farm pond of 900 m3 capacity dug in Vertisols of Garkampet village, Gudihatnoor mandal of Adilabad dist. in Telangana, got filled during 1st week of August 2008 & water retained till Feb. 2009 even after use.

Our experience at RARS, Palem

  • 👌 Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS) located at Palem, Nagarkurnool dist. under Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University (PJTSAU), Hyderabad, Telangana state is lead centre for developing farming-situation-specific technologies in dryland agriculture w/view to enhance rainfed crop productivity.

  • 👌 Cotton, maize, Pigeonpea, maize & castor are rainfed crops grown predominantly in zone during kharif season.

  • Rabi, groundnut in Alfisols & Bengalgram in Vertisols are widely grown.

Life saving Irrigation to Rainfed crops

  • Finger millet, one life saving irrigation resulted in 25 - 33 % yield advantage over rainfed crops.

📝 Government Support

Following govt. agencies extending support for construction of farm ponds & other water storage structures:

  • National Horticultural Board (NHB) thru Horticultural Department

  • Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGA)

  • National Bank for Agricultural & Rural Development (NABARD-WDF)

  • Hill Area Development Project (HADP)

  • Tribal Area Development Project (TADP)

  • MGNREGA, Backward Regions Grant Fund (BRGF), Member of Parliament

  • Local Area Development (MPLAD) & Integrated Watershed Management Program (IWMP) provide ample opportunities for periodic desilting & renovation of village ponds, tanks & other storage structures

Other Important Notes

ICAR promoting New Technologies for Rural Areas

  • To increase productivity, reduce cost of cultivation, reduce drudgery, improve value addition, conserve resource & provide alternate means for energy generation thru improve farm mechanization during last 3 years.

  • 👌 In area of fisheries, ICAR developed breeding & seed production technology of 9 food fish species; technology of marine cage farming & its dissemination thru 1500 cages (principally in Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, TN & AP); 4 feeds for diff. life stages of imp. fish & shrimp species & their commercialization, breeding & seed production technology for 9 ornamental fish.

  • Apart from mKisan, Kisan Suvidha mobile App has been developed for use of farmers having smart phones & access to internet.

Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana & Value Chain Initiatives

  • 👌 To promote agro-ecological practices that increase women farmer’s income & reduce their input costs & risks, Deendayal Antodaya Yojana – National Rural Livelihoods Mission (DAY-NRLM) has been implementing Mahila Kisan Shashaktikaran Pariyojana (MKSP).

  • Small & marginal farmers producing Maize, Mango, Floriculture, Dairy, Goatery etc. have benefited significantly.

Loading video•••

Technology for Rural Development: Kurukshetra May 2018 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra April 2018: Technology for Rural Development

👌 implies important for Objective Questions/MCQ

📝 implies important for Subjective Questions

📹 implies covered in Videos or Upcoming Videos

- Published/Last Modified on: June 1, 2018


Developed by: