Kurukshetra October 2017 Comprehensive Summary / Gist – Swachhta (Download PDF)


Download PDF of This Page (Size: 308.63 K)

Started on August 2014 with 5 year goal to achieve cleanliness by 2019 (2nd Oct) – 150th birth anniversary of Gandhiji, Aims to bring 550 million rural Indians out of open defecation and is globally unique program, Improve anthropometric index of children and reduction in total mortality, Sanitation cover increased from 39 % to 69 % in rural areas, 4.96 crore toilets have been built, 207 districts and 2.5 lakh villages declared ODF, All villages of banks of Ganga River declared ODF, Sikkim, Haryana, Uttarakhand, Kerala and Himachal Pradesh – declared ODF.

Loading video•••

Swachhta: Kurukshetra October 2017 Summary (In English)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra October 2017: Swachhta

  • ODF village – every family saves Rs. 50,000/year on avoided medical savings, time and lives
  • Changing people’s mindset – behavioral change
  • 2017 – create it as Jan Andolan – “Swachhta hi Seva” – 75 lakh people joined with 40,000 initiatives so far
  • Movement like Solid and Liquid Resource Management and Waste to Wealth
  • India in list of countries with highest number of people practicing open defecation
  • Focus on behavioral change by Information, Communication and Education
  • Shift focus from outputs (number of toilets) to outcome (behavioral change and ODF villages)
  • Virtual classrooms – central trainer interacts with trainees from multiple locations
  • SBM-G – 90 days window for third party verification of village’s self-declared ODF status
  • Innovative solutions to monitor usage, to bring behavioral change, environment friendly technology and early decomposition of fecal matter
  • Launch of 30 Swachhta Raths in Allahabad – Nukad Nataks
  • 2 Villages on bank of Ganga – Veerpur Khurd (Dehradun) and Mala (Pauri Garhwal) taken by MDWS to make them model Ganga Villages in collaboration with Global Interfaith WASH Alliance (GIWA)

Economics of Investing in Swachhta

  • Issues addressed – child mortality, diarrheal diseases, safety and dignity of women
  • Open defecation causes 1 lakh preventable deaths due to diarrhea
  • 40 % children are physically and cognitively stunted due to lack of sanitation – threat to demographic dividend
  • Lack of sanitation costs India 6 % of GDP
  • Economic benefits of households outweigh cumulative investment by 4.7 times in 10 years
  • Budget of $20 million for 5 years – additional from private sector, faith institutions and citizens
  • Highest contributor – Rs. 100 crore from Mata Amritanandamayi
  • Ministries and Departments of GoI budget for sanitation at Rs. 12,000 crore for FY 2017 - 18
  • PM offered shramdaan for construction of twin pit toilet at Shahanshahpur village, Varanasi – named it as Izaat Ghar
  • Quality Council of India conducted independent 3rd part assessment of present status of rural sanitation in all states and UTs
  • Most households without toilets lie in UP and Bihar
  • October to remember great men – did something for nation as
  1. 2nd Oct – birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi and Lal Bahadur Shastri
  2. 11th October – birth anniversary of JP Narayan and Nanaji Deskmukh
  3. 25th Sept – birth anniversary of Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhyay

Clean India

  • ODF villages registered slip back as old habits are hard to break
  • Swachhta Darpan – District rankings on performance, sustainability and transparency
  • Village Swachhta Index – 1.5 lakh villages already part of it
  • Tata trust hired 600 professionals to work in each district
  • Zila Swachh Bharat Preraks – infuse in youth swachhta element
  • Swachh Bharat Hackathon – innovative technology based solutions for SBM-G
  • Swachh Sankalp se Swachh Siddhi – film, essay and painting competition organized by GoI
Shauchalaya apnao, Bharat ko swachh banao Image

Shauchalaya Apnao, Bharat Ko Swachh Banao Image

Shauchalaya apnao, Bharat ko swachh banao Image

Swachhta Hi Seva Campaign

  • Large scale cleaning of parks, ponds, hospitals, bus stops and railway stations
  • Construction of toilets
  • Improve cleanliness by SLRM
  • Build public and community toilets
  • Bring behavioral change in people
  • Promote gender sensitive information and education – Gender Guidelines, 2017
  • Swachh Sarvekshan assessed 22 hill districts and 53 plain areas – Mandi (HP) and Sindhudurg (Maharashtra) as cleanest districts in India
  • Publish Swachh Samachar Patrika
  • Role of celebrities – Amitabh Bacchan, Sachin Tendulkar, Akshay Kumar
  • Other efforts – Swachhta Pakhwadas, Swachh Swasth Sarvatra, School sanitation drives, Anganwadi sanitation drive, Corporate partnership and Inter-Faith Cooperation


  • Twin Pit Pour Flush Water Seal Toilet (TPPFWST) – in areas of low water table to avoid groundwater pollution - 3 years – content degrade as solid, odorless and pathogen manure free – pit has honeycomb structure to remove watery part of excreta. Not suitable for high water table (pit becomes saturated and percolation reduces) and rocky areas (cleaning is difficult as unavailability of mechanical devices)
  • Pan: Mostly ceramic with 25 to 29 degree slope (1.5 to 2 liters water to clean)
  • Water seal: 20 mm only and must for water scarce areas
  • Foot rest: 20 mm above floor level and inclined outwards
  • Pit Lining: Bricks joined in 1: 6 cement mortar ratio
Coastal Areas–Ecosan toilet, biotoilet and Septic tank toilet

Coastal Areas–Ecosan Toilet, Biotoilet and Septic Tank Toilet

Coastal Areas–Ecosan toilet, biotoilet and Septic tank toilet

Swachhathon 1.0

Crowd source solutions for sanitation and hygiene

  • Monitoring usage of toilets – affordable, scalable, socially acceptable, ease of use and accurate
  • Triggering behavioral change - scalable, socially acceptable
  • Toilet technologies in difficult terrain – remote areas, hard rocks and flood prone areas
  • Working solutions for maintenance of school toilets – maintenance, reduce time and cost
  • Technology for MHM – safe, cost effective and scalable
  • Solution for early decomposition of faecal matter


  • Ram Prakash Tiwari – Arunachal Pradesh – use bamboo rather than bricks for in twin pit technology
  • Zero emission incinerators
  • Plastic cans for low cost urinals – in Koppal, Karnataka

Biggest toilet in the world – Pandarpur, Pune border, Maharashtra as per Founder of Sulabh International, Dr. B. Pathak - will have 2,858 seats (China has largest so far with 1,000 seats)

Waste to Wealth

  • India generates 55 million ton of municipal solid waste and 38 billion tons of sewage
  • Waste generation to increase from 62mt/year to 165 mt/year by 2030
  • Includes reduce, reuse and recycle
  • Types of waste
  1. Industrial waste – hazardous (8 mt/year – Maharashtra and Gujarat tops it and 7 states contribute to 82%) and non-hazardous
  2. Urban waste – Municipal sild waste, sludge and faecal sludge
  3. Biomass waste
  4. Biomedical waste
  • Waste to power contribute to 0.2 % of renewable energy in contrast to wind power at 56.80%
  1. Thermal conversion under high temperature
  2. Thermo-chemical conversion involves high temperature driven decomposition and includes pyrolysis and gasification
  3. Biochemical conversion involves enzymatic decomposition of organic matter
  4. Electrochemical conversion refers to microbial fuel cells where oxidation-reduction takes place
  • Potential of 225 MW from all sewage and 1460 MW from MSW of which only 24 MW is exploited that is less than 1.5%
  • Waste to Energy sector is new concept based on biomethanation technology with lack of financial resources and conducive policy
  • Bilal Dar – 18 year old boy from Srinagar works for cleaning Wular Lake, Srinagar and is now brand ambassador – educates and inspires people around

National Mission for Clean Ganga

2525 km stretch with 5 states – Uttarakhand, UP, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal – area of 8.6 lakh km2 with 46 % population, 118 towns, and 1657 gram panchayats

  • Sewage and effluent management
  • Complete sanitation coverage of Gram Panchayat
  • Development of model dhobi ghats
  • GIS platform for planning and monitoring
  • Expenditure in first 3 years is Rs. 3673 crore
  • Maintain flow without altering natural season variation
  • Restore relation between surface and subsurface flow
  • Maintain water quality
  • Regenerate and conserve aquatic biodiversity in Ganga basin
  • Make Ganga Floodplains as construction free zones

Gandhiji & Sanitation

Gandhiji & Sanitation

Gandhiji & Sanitation

Gandhiji & Sanitation

  • SDG 6: Availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all
  • Reasonable improvement in sanitation b/w 1990 to 2012
  • Gandhiji worked on experiments in building and cleaning toilets, emancipating the sanitation workers and their social discrimination
  • His concern started in South Africa after exposure to English settlements – he explained villages were virtual hells
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale – was political guru of Gandhiji and asked him to travel around or 1 year before embarking on any political situation
  • In Navjivan and Young India he frequently wrote about sanitation
  • In Phoenix Ashram and Tolstoy Farm in S. Africa – sanitation work started – human excreta transformed to fertilizer
  • Social innovation – Sulabh International; Sanitation and Environment Institute, Sughad, Gandhinagar
  • 2016 Magsaysay Award Winner – Bezwada Wilson for works on amelioration and resettlement of manual scavengers (Around 2 lakh still exist in India)
  • Biogas promotion with biogas plants on highway dhabas - as by Gujarat Vidyapeeth and all universities must have programs for sanitation
Image of Sanitation Is More Important

Image of Sanitation is More Important

Image of Sanitation Is More Important

PM Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana or Saubhagya

  • Electricity connection to 4 crore poor
  • Outlay of Rs. 16,000 crore
  • Provide power to all homes

Swachh Bharat Kosh

  • Started in 2014
  • Channelization of CSR funds
  • Construct toilets
  • Renovation and repair of community toilets
  • Initiatives of improving sanitation

Case Studies

  • Narsinghpur district, MP – many sugar mills on Narmada River with 1.5 lakh migrant wage laborers, economy is agriculture and 2 highway pass through this region – changing attitude of people and working around building toilets in public spaces by children and women – effort by foot soldiers, supply chain management, frontline workers, convergent agenda, grievance redressal, monitoring and review systems
  • Hinotia village in Kareli block of Narsinghpur – slogans on wall, child carrying green whistles if someone breaks the rule
  • USHA (Understand, Sensitize, Help and Achieve) Campaign – Chamarajanagar District, Karnataka to access toilets and provide awareness about Menstrual Hygiene Management (MHM) – mentors representing 130 Gram Panchayats in district participated in performance at district headquarters
  • Mondrita Chatterjee – Jamshedpur – heard that girls have high school dropouts due to lack of toilet and planned to build toilets by saving her pocket money with Rs. 24,000 in Kendradhi Village, Chotta Govindpur Panchayat of Jamshedpur
Loading video•••

Swachhta: Kurukshetra October 2017 Summary (In Hindi)

Dr. Manishika Jain explains Kurukshetra October 2017: Swachhta

- Published/Last Modified on: November 22, 2017


Doorsteptutor material for CLAT GK-Current-Affairs is prepared by worlds top subject experts- fully solved questions with step-by-step exaplanation- practice your way to success.

Developed by: