Kurukshetra October 2019 - Agricultural Reforms (Part 2) (Download PDF)

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Best Farming Techniques In Indian Scenario: Small & marginal farming families that from backbone of Indian agriculture & economy. Policy support, production strategies, public investment in infrastructure, research & extension for crop, livestock & fisheries have significantly helped to increase more than twice. Availability of foodgrain per person increased from 455 g per capita per day to over 518g per capita per day even as the country’s population swelled from 683 million to nearly 1300 million.

Conservation Agriculture (CA):

  • Conservation agriculture (CA) has been viewed as an important strategy against food security challenges posed by climate change, deterioration & depletion of soil health, reducing or stagnating crop yield, land degration & environmental pollution
  • Farmer burn crop residues in- situ to clear field & make them ready for next crop, which cause a very serious atmospheric pollution problem particulary during Nov–Dec when rice crop residue is burnt in large quantitates.
  • CA shouldered by 3 major pillaring principles, i) minimum soil disturbance ii) maintenance of permanent soil Covers & iii) cropping system diversity, crop rotations.
  • All 3 principles show lot of promises in alleviating problem like sustaining soil health conserving natural resources, fulfilling basic need for cereals, pulses oilseeds & vegetables, regulating farm income, securing food & nutritional security, reducing use of external inputs, ensuring environmental safety & creating employment opportunity.
  • Residue burning is reduced drastically in indo–Gangetic plains. CA based crop mgmt. practices not only enhance crop productivity but also reduce cost of production & maintain soil health.

Integrated farming systems (IFS)

  • In regions w/rainfall of 500 to 700 mm, farming systems should be based on livestock w/promotion of low –water requiring grasses, trees & bushes to meet fodder, fuel & timber requirements of farmers.
  • In 700 to 1,100 mm rainfall regions, crops, horticulture & livestock- based farming systems can be adopted depending on soil type & marketability factors.
  • Under irrigated areas following IFS model are most suitable to maintain soil Fertility & productivity.
  • Intensification & diversification of crop component of farming system.
  • Diversification of other component of farming system for higher income.

Precise Nutrient Mgmt. & soil health cards:

  • Site –specific nutrient mgmt. relies on principles of ‘5Rs’ right time, right amount, right place, right source, & right manner. Site-specific Nutrient mgmt. (SSNM) approach emphasizes ‘feeding’ crop with nutrients as & when needed. ‘SSNM strives to enable farmers to dynamically adjust fertilizer use to optimally fill deficit b/w nutrient needs of a high-yielding crop & nutrient supply from naturally occurring indigenous source such as soil, organic amendments. Crop residues, manures & irrigation water
  • Use of neem coated prilled urea & zinc sulphate- coated urea is beneficial in increasing grain yield, yield attributes, agronomic efficiency & apparent nitrogen recovery of field crops.
  • Production of 100 % neem coated urea for improvements in soil health & reduction in attack of pests & diseases.
  • This Leads to decrease in use of plant protection chemicals, overall increase in crop yield & reduction in use of urea for non agriculture purposes.
  • Use of biofertilisers like application phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) & vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) along w/rock phosphate provide higher productivity of field crop.
  • These bio-fertilisers enhance root length, root volume & root dry weight
  • Application of NPK fertilisers is adjusted to location & time as per need of crop based on soil health card
  • Leaf colour chart (LCC) Chlorophyll meters & green seeker based nitrogen mgmt. which ensure that nitrogen is applied at right time & in right amount as needed by crop which reduces wastage of N- fertilizer.
  • Integration w/other integrated crop mgmt. (ICM) practices such as use of quality seeds, optimum plant population & efficient water mgmt.
  • Fertigation is most efficient method of fertiliser application, as it ensures uniform application of water & fertilisers directly it plant roots as per crop demand since both water nutrients reach directly ti rooting Zone, it has tremendous effect on resource saving.
  • Use of software-based skills like – Nutrient Experts, crop manager, geographical information system (GIS) & global positioning system (GPS) in monitoring & application of nutrients.

Efficient water Management:

  • w/Mission of ‘per drop more crop’ GOI is allocated more fund Pradhan mantri Krishi Sinchayee yojana (PMKSY) so that more area can be covered under irrigation by encouraging drip & sprinkler irrigation & development of small water sources like farm pounds.
  • Both in–situ & ex-situ rain water mgmt. play crucial roles for increasing & sustaining crop productivity in union budget of 2018 under ‘har khet ko pani’ a component of PMKSY scheme, ground water irrigation scheme was implemented in 96 districts, where less than 30 % land is currently getting an assured irrigation facility.

Organic Farming:

  • Organic food products are consideration to be much safer & nutritious than products produced by conventional farming. Organic farming also helps to restore soil health, protect environment, enhance biodiversity, sustain crop productivity & enhance farmers income.
  • Main objectives is organic farming of Paramparagat kheti are following
  • To promote use of natural resources based on integrated, sustainable & climate –friendly farming practices.
  • Reducing dependence of farmers on external inputs, promotion of soli fertility, natural resource protection & nutrient recycling.
  • Reducing cost of agriculture production of farmers so that per unit income can be increased.
  • Protecting environment from hazardous inorganic chemicals by adopting conventional techniques & farm – friendly technologies, which are cost effective.

Crop Diversification:

  • Crop diversification proved to be of paramount importance in mitigating environmental problems arising on account of monoculture.
  • There is need to diversify crop cultivation w/pulses, oilseeds fibre crop along w/high value crops like fruits, vegetables, flowers, medicinal & aromatic plants, spices etc. as per agro climatic conditions & resourcefulness of farmers for efficient mgmt. of natural resources
  • Resource conservation Technologies (RCTs)
  • These techniques include zero or minimum tillage (save fuel) permanent or semi – permanent residue cover, new varieties that use nitrogen more efficiently, laser land levelling that save irrigation water, system of Rice intensification (SRI), Direct Seeded Rice (DSR) Use of leaf colour chart (LCC)

Integrated crop Management (ICM)

  • ICM Suggests the use of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) Such as integrated Nutrient (INM), Integrated Weed mgmt. (IWM), Integrated Disease Mgmt. (IDM) & Integrated pest Mgmt. (IPM) etc. . for raising a good crop.
  • ICM is particularly beneficial for small & marginal farmers because it aims to minimise dependence on purchased inputs while utilizing on – farm resources.

Small- Farm Mechanisation:

National innovations on climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) to step one custom-hiring center each at 130 climatically vulnerable villages across country.

Climate Smart Cropping:

  • Controlled Environment Agriculture (CEA) & is highly productive, encourages water & land conservation as well as protects environment.
  • Technology involves cultivation of horticultural crops in a controlled environment where in factors like temperature, humidity, light, soil, water, fertilisers produce as well as allow a regular supply of them even during off- season.
  • Main purpose of protected of protected cultivation is to create a favorable environment for sustained growth of crop, so as to realise its maximum potential even in adverse climatic condition. Potential cultivation technology offers several advantages to produce vegetables, flowers, hybrid seed of high quality with minimum risks that arise due to uncertainty of weather while at same time ensuring efficient use of resources.

Empowering women Farmers

  • As an agrarian economy, India derivers 18 % of its GDP From agriculture sector
  • India in present time is not only self- sufficient in food production but also occupies 7th position as net exporter of agri- products worldwide.
  • Agriculture census conducted every 5 years by department of agriculture, cooperation & farmer Welfare (CAC&FW), Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
  • DAC&FW lays emphasis on ‘mainstreaming of gender concerns in agriculture’ via-a-vis schemes or programmes/missions by allocating at least 30 % of benefits & resources for women under all such developmental initiatives.
  • Support for women food security groups (FSGs) Women farmer group are recognised under ATMA cafeteria as a compulsory activity at Rs. 0.01 lakh per group/year for attaining food security at the domestic or household level, by setting up of kitchen garden, promoting off- farm activities w/cattle (activities that otherwise evade GDP computation).
  • Procurement of agricultural machinery & Equipments (Subside pattern) Women farmers can avail benefits in tandem with, or over & above benefits offered to men. For purchasing an essential agricultural equipment, say tractor (up to 20 PTO HP) women get additional benefits subsidies & cost reduction, for instance, 35 % of subsidy to total cost as compared w/25 % of cost for men.
  • Representation of women Farmers it is imperative for women farmers to be included in decision making bodies – state District Block Farmer Advisory committees, ATMA governing committees etc.
  • Promoting women group Women’s group cooperatives, self help group (SHGs) to be incorporated by states for distribution of certified seeds (Under aegis of National Mission on oilseeds & Oil palm (NMOOP) ).
  • Integrated scheme for agricultural marketing (ISAM) women are endowed with subsidies for storage infrastructure that includes a 33.33 % subsidy (on capital cost) for women as compared to 25 % for men.
  • Agriculture insurance safeguarding coverage of women farmer along with a budget allocation & utilization in accordance w/population proportion.
  • Agriculture & farmer welfare ministry Research, ICAR a central institute for women in agricultural sector & developing women – centred technology.
  • w/aim to fortify agricultural research & enhance agricultural productivity to bolster farm income ICAR has initiated all India co-ordinated Research project (AICRP).
  • Its Krishi vigyan kendras (KVKs) have successfully trained about 3.1 lakh women agriculturists & has been made mandatory in 668 KVKs across country.
  • 15th October of every year was marked as women farmer’s Day by ministry of agriculture & farmers welfare in year 2016.
  • Empowerment for women in an all-round manner can only come about when women are educated about their health, social well- being, financial standing & political partaking.

Change In Public Services for Poorer Section

  • In a vast county like India, deliverance of necessary public service to most deprived families, based on equality & justice depends on
  • Evidence- based selection of beneficiaries
  • Policy Measures based on deep research.
  • Reducing human intervention by the availability & Maximum utilization of information technology resources, &
  • Aprat from other evolving an effective coordination among various agencies working under federal structure
  • In broader framework of “sabka saath sabka vikas “, fulfilment of ambitious national aims like ‘housing for all’ ‘health for all’ ‘education for all’ ‘employment for all’ and to fulfil the dream off “New India”
  • To determine condition of scarcity among such families a pan- Indian flawless survey should be conducted & survey should be done by the local Govt.
  • Blueprints of programmes should be prepared on the basis of past experiences & best national & international practices so as to ensure programmes as per requirement
  • To Ensure adequate financial resources for well prepared programmes
  • Coordinating among different levels of administration taking lessons from past experience & effecting reformative measures w/promptness during implementation.
  • During last few years, programmes like gram swaraj abhiyan conducted in the Rural Development Sector is completely transparent
  • Socio-Economic & caste based census (SECC) 2011 data analysis in July 2015.
  • Selection of beneficiaries for LPG scheme Ujjwala free electricity connection- Saubhagya, housing thru. Pradhan Mantri Awas yojana –Gramin (PMAY-G) & medical assistance in hospitals thru. The Ayushman Bharat was done on basis of scarcity-related parameters of the SECC.
  • SECC data was used for determining state labour budgets under mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) & also for inclusion of all households w/scarcity in creation of self- help Group (SHGs) Under Deendayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Rural Livelihood Mission (DAY-NRLM).
  • Jan Dhan & other accounts of poor have turned to be medium of Direct benefit Transfer (DBT) without any interference of the middlemen.
  • This led to significant improvement in system.
  • Instead of transferring cash into account of Panchayats, payment against material costs & wages can be made thru. This system under authority of elected panchayat leader.
  • Schemes like MGNREGA wage material ration of 60: 40 at Gram panchayat level has been changed & implemented at district levels also.
  • Personal benefit Scheme is introduced as an assistance to poor to enable them to work for 90 - 95 days for constructing their own houses.
  • Under the rural housing scheme, 15 million houses have been built during last 5 years & phse0wise geo- tagged pictures have also been uploaded in the public domain.
  • In economically backward or BIMARU states, most of population lives in vulnerable huts. These stats have created an example of out standing work done under Pradhan Manti Awas Yojana –grmain. This is only scheme in India where BIMARU state have taken initiative to lead change.
  • For Promotion of enterprises, the Ministry of Rural development has ensured more than 67 % employment opportunities under DDU-GKY & more than 23 jobs under RSETI Programme. Under this scheme, various reforms have been made in skill development programmes in order to emphasize up on providing employment as well as self –employment thru. Rural Self –Employment training institutes (RSETI).
  • During last one year efforts is made to make entire process fully accountable & transparent thru. Ge-tagging, IT/DBT & PFMS under MGNREGA & PMAY-G.
  • Grams Swaraj Abhiyan was a unique effort of the government for overall coverage of each & every person in 63974 villages of the country thru. 7 major public welfare schemes.
  • Under this Programme, benefits relating to Ujjwala for LPG connection, Saubhagya for electricity ujala for 3 LED bulbs, Mission indradhanush for vaccination, jan Dhan for bank accounts & insurance for contingencies as well as life insurance were provided to each & every household at their door step, within a stipulated time through an effective monitoring process.
  • Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY). 130 to 135 km length of roadswere constructed every day during last 1000 days & it became possible due to effective monitoring & continuous dialogues w/state governments.
  • In order to decrease the carbon footprint & to provide a lasting base for development, more than 30,000 km of roads were constructed thru. Green technology, using waste plastic material.
  • Govt. is already sanctioned integrated 1,25,000 km of thorough & main rural roads to connect them w/higher secondary schools, hospitals & slums w/an estimated cist of Rs. 80,250 Cr.

Ways To Enhance Agriculture Production

  • Population of India is projected to be 1.65 billion by 2050 w/nearly 50 % People residing in urban areas.
  • According to one scenario, at 7 % growth rate in national, GDP demand fir fruits vegetables & animal products will be in the range of 100 to 300 %.
  • Committee is identified 7 source of income growth, nearly, improvement in crop productivity; improvement in livestock productivity; resource use efficiency or saving in cost of production; increase in the crop intensity, diversification towards high value crops, improvement in prices received by farmers shift from farm to non-farm occupations.
  • Efficient Management of Resources:
  • A Study undertaken to study impact of soil health cards revealed that use of fertilizers & micro –nutrients as per recommendation of soil health card resulted in reduction of consumption by 8 to 10 % whereas yield of crops increased by 5 to 6 %.
  • Promotion & use of neem coated ures also optimized its consumption & decreased cost of fertilizers.
  • During 2014 - 15, Govt. launched Pradhan Mantri Krishi Sinchayee Yojana (PMKSY) to ensure assured irrigation to every field, that is “Har khet ko pani”.
  • Besides water use efficiency, micro –irrigation increases Productivity in range of 40%, 50% & also adds value to crop quality there by raising its market value in general, it increases farmers’ income to tune of 40%. Micro –irrigation cutes farming cost by saving energy, fertilizers & labour
  • India Council of Agricultural Research alone development over 1,000 new varieties during 2014 - 19 that including varieties of cereals, oilseeds, pulses & horticulture crops.
  • Govt. distributed over 29 lakhs machines to farmes across India during 201 - 19, Nearly 14,000 custom hiring centers have also been established during this period to provide machine to farmers at a reasonable hire charges.

Crop Diversity – Crop Intensity

  • Aim of crop diversification is to increase crop portfolio so that farmers are not dependent on a single crop to generate their income diversification also manages price risk appropriately because all products will not suffer low market price at the same time. Studies is revealed that shifting one hectare area from staple crops to commercial high value crops is potential to increase gross return upto Rs. One lakh
  • A Specific Scheme “KUSUM” is launched this year to support establishment of solar Power plant on barren land or agricultural land.
  • Farmer Producers Organizations (FPOs) can play a seminal role by taking up marketing responsibilities as a group & safeguarding interests of farmers current Union Budget (2019 - 20) has proposed to from 10,000 new FPOs over next 5 years. FPOs enable farmers to enhance productivity thru. efficient, cost-effective & sustainable resources use & realize higher returns for their produce.
  • Govt. has aligned its business – oriented schemes, such as SFURTI & ASPIRE w/agriculture activities to boost business prospects in agriculture.
  • Livestock for Livelihood
  • Breed improvement, better feed & nutrition, animal health, & better heard composition are some of important measures that can raise livestock productivity & farmers income.
  • Govt. has launched mission ‘Blue Revolution’ to make fisheries sector more remunerative & attractive for fish farmers.

E-NAM: Game Changer in Agriculture Marketing

  • E-NAM of Electronic National Agriculture Market is a pan-India trading portal launched in April 2016. It is a trading portal for farm produce which aims to create a unified national market committees (APMC).
  • E-NAM is a device to create a national network of mandis which can be accessed online.
  • Main aim e-NAM is to improve marketing aspect of agriculture sector w/one license for entries state & w/single point levy.
  • Working w/e-NAM improves supply chain of commodities & reduce wastages which can be seen in some states involve in online tending.
  • E-NAM also provide traders, commission agents & exporters better business opportunities thru. A unified & extensive marketplace.

Performance of e- NAM Since 2016

  • E-NAM o transforming way India Trades in farm produce & has roped in 585 mandis across 16 States & 2 Union territories, linking more than 1,65,04,866 farmers, 1,25,167 traders & 69,842 commission agents.
  • E-NAM trade in 150 commodities, & goods worth Rs. 52,173 Cr. Is traded so far.
  • The Portal is available in 8 language like Hindi, English, Telugu, Odiya, Bangla, Tamil, Gujarati & Marathi
  • TABLE 1: No stakeholders in e-NAM (as on 31st August, 2019)

TABLE show in No stakeholders in e-NAM

TABLE show in No stakeholders in e-NAM

Sate/Union Territories




Commission Agents (CAs)


Service provider








  • e-NAM provides a simple technological way to farmers as it allow trading of commodities at mandis thru. Mobile & web application.
  • E-NAM a transparent system for regulated fair trade. Farmers get fair payments & are spared tricks employed by unscrupulous trades to manipulated price.
  • There are 1,25,167 tared registered on e-NAM & a total of 26,957 unified licenses issued by states as on 31st August 2019.

e-NAM A step Forward:

e-NAM is a great solution for all stakehoders. NAM provides farmers more option for sell of their produce at nearest mandi or even in interstate. For traders NAM offers opportunity to access a larger national market Bulk buyers, processors, exporters etc benefited by being able to participate directly in trading at local mandi level thru. NAM Platform, thereby reducing their intermediation costs.

Inter- State transaction b/w e-NAM mandis in Uttarakhand & Uttar Pradesh in vegetable crops such as potatoes, brinjal & cauliflower since 2019 have commenced.

Ministry of agriculture & Farmer’s welfare continuously conducted a series of coordination meetings w/sates & mandi board officials to facilitate inter state trade b/w e-NAM Sates.

One of major issues that hinders seamless transaction on e-NAM is non- availability of a trading license for traders other than those from home state.

e-NAM platform has an inter- state dashboard to promote inter- sate trade. So far 585 regulated market in 18 sates/union Territories is interpreted w/e-NAM Platform & another 415 markets are expected to be on platform by March 2020.

Table 2: List of Commodity trade on e- NAM

Table Show in List of Commodity trade on e- NAM

Table Show in List of Commodity trade on e- NAM

Commodity category

No of Commodities

Food grains/cereals/pulses














  • To Increase its adoptability, many initiatives is undertaken by Govt. such as:
  • Simplifying registration of farmers on portal.
  • Intensifying payment options
  • Extending e-NAM trading in six language w/available of portal in 8 language.

e-NAM as a Game Changer:

  • Many advantages of e-NAM which can change Indian agriculture trade sector for ever:
  • No middlemen involved in buying –selling of agriculture products, hence better deal for farmes
  • Less transaction coat.
  • Single license valid across all connected mandis.
  • Single point levy of all products.
  • Quality testing procedure introduced for buyers & sellers

- Published/Last Modified on: November 2, 2019


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